philosophy review

philosophy review - Arguments A deductive argument is sound...

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Arguments - A deductive argument is sound if and only if it is both valid, and all of its premises are actually true. Otherwise, a deductive argument is unsound. - It cant be sound if it isn’t valid - An argument is valid if the truth of the premises logically guarantees the truth of the conclusion. - Deductive- premises guarantee the conclusion - Inductive- conclusion is supported by premises but not guaranteed - The premises of an argument do not have actually to be true in order for the argument to be valid - If event A must occur for event B to occur, then we say that A is necessary for B. If event A may cause B but there could be some other cause as well, then we say that A is sufficient to cause B. Utilitarianism Increase happiness or decrease suffering - Ex: experimenting on animals is okay because the because the benefits outweigh the negatives Consequentialism- every action has a consequence - Your thought don’t matter only your actions Mental pleasures over bodily pleasures Jeremy Bentham- Quantity of happiness Suffering is relate to equality Principle of utility- deals with happiness Most people are speciesists Act utilitarianism- the consequences of each action must be weighed to determine the rightness or wrongness of that act - Problem: you can’t predict the future Rule utilitatariansim- actions tend to produce a certain amount of happiness or unhappiness. -
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philosophy review - Arguments A deductive argument is sound...

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