Origins& Relationships

Origins& Relationships - Origins &...

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Unformatted text preview: Origins & Relationships 04:51 Primates Humans- long recognized as primate mammals o Linnaeus Primate ancestor o Eyes face forward- depth perception o Grasping hands & feed with opposable Primate- 3 groups o Prosimians Lemurs, tarsiers Tree0 dwelling, nocturnal o Monkeys paraphyletic New & Old World monkeys, gibbons Tree- dwelling o Hominidae Great apes, individual humans Tree- & ground- dwelling Figure 34.40 Hominidae Hominidae ancestor o No tail o Long arms/ short legs o Fist, walking Extant Hominidae o Orangutan- Southeast Asia o Gorillas- 2 species- Africa o Human o All endangered except humans o Know relationships- Fig. 34.40 o Closest relatives of humans: 2 species chimpanzee o Human- chimp split 7 mya Humans evolved from chimps- True or False? o FALSE, chimps are extant, close relative by not ancestor (still living) Defined by bipedalism o Monophyletic group Humans + ~14 extinct, bipedal species Hominins radiated into a number of species, now only humans Our Twig of the Tree? o What features make us human? Morphology: bipedal, upright posture, non-opposable toe, reduced hair, big brain Tools, technology, culture Language, communication Reasoning Wonder o Features evolved at different times no single line separating human. Non-human Hominin Evolution Hominin tree o Bushy, not linear! o Several species o Bipedalism first, then large brains Figure 34.42 Evolution o Andipithecus ~ 4 mya Ardi Skeleton fragmentary (~ 40%) Clearly bipedal & ground- dwelling! o Australopithecus ~4-2.5 mya Oldest hominin with good fossil record Includes Lucy Small- males 411 35 Small brain (450cc) but fully bipedal! Skull- spinal cord connection Figure 34.41a o Paranthropus 2.5 -1.0 mya Robust! Massive teeth & muscle attachment ridges E.g. Nutcracker man Brain still small (500cc) A side branch? Figure 34.41b o Early Homo ~2.5 mya E.g. H. habilis- Handy Man Larger brain! (700cc) Stone tools! Figure 34.41c o Middle Homo E.g. Homo erectus ~2 mya to ~100,000 ya Long fossil record Use of fire!...
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Origins& Relationships - Origins &...

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