Psych221 Txbk Notes

Psych221 Txbk Notes - Social Psychology: The scientific...

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Social Psychology : The scientific study of how we think, feel, and behave toward others, and how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors influence and are influenced by the other people in our lives. Brief History : Kurt Lewin – “father of social psychology” Social Cognition – an understanding of knowledge about how our social worlds develop, and the influence of these knowledge structures on memory, information processing, attitudes, and judgment. how is human decision making flawed by both cognitive and motivational processes? Social Neuroscience – how our social behavior both influences and is influenced by the activities of our brain 1) Should be studied empirically : based on the collection and analysis of data 2) Based on 5 factors: a. Person – relationship between the person and the other people around him/her b. Situation – people we interact with/ social groups we belong to i. Social Influence : The processes through which other people change our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and through which we change theirs. ii. Culture : A group of people, normally living within the same geographical region, who share a common set of social norms, including religious and family values. 1. Individualism. Cultural norms, common in Western societies,that focus primarily on self-enhancement and independence. 2. Collectivism . Cultural norms that indicate that people should be more fundamentally connected with others, and thus oriented toward interdependence. c. Cognition – the mental activity of processing information, and using that information in judgment (thinking comes from cerebral cortex) i. Social Cognition: cognition that relates to social activities, and which helps us understand and predict the behavior of ourselves and others. 1. Schema: Knowledge that includes information about a person or group 2. Attitude: Knowledge that includes an evaluation about a person or group d. Behavior – Interactions: f(Person, social situation) Lewin i. Dependent on both the characteristics of the person & the influence of the situation Person-situation interaction ii. Evolutionary Adaptation : human nature is determined by evolution 1. Fitness: The extent to which having a given characteristic helps the individual organism survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other members of the species who do not have the characteristic. iii. Social Exchange : The sharing of goods, services, or emotions, and other social rewards iv. Reciprocal Altruism : cooperate by giving benefits to those who are in need, with the expectation of a return of benefits at a future time. e. Affect – Feelings we experience as part of our everyday lives i. Mood: Positive or negative feelings that are in the background of our everyday experiences ii. Emotions: brief, but often intense, mental and physiological feeling states; more specific form of affect 3) Fundamental Goals : a. Protecting and enhancing the self and the ingroup b. Affiliating with, accepting and beng accepted by others. 4)
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Psych221 Txbk Notes - Social Psychology: The scientific...

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