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Unformatted text preview: CONCEPTS OF CONCEPTS DI SEASE DI REVI EW OF CEL L S
NURS 216 Spr i ng 2010 Sabr a Smi th, M S, RN Objectives Become familiar with pathophysiology terms Review cellular structures and function Understand functions of the cell membrane Review cell metabolism Disease What is disease? Changes within the physiology of an individual that cause their health parameters to be abnormal An extension or distortion of the body’s normal physiologic processes Normal “Normal” refers to a standard, average, or What is normal? typical example of a set of objects or values. (Mosby, 2002) Pathophysiology Patho – from Greek Pathos for suffering – pathology is an abnormality or disease Physiology – bodily function Pathophysiology is the study of the disturbance of normal mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions, either caused by a disease, or resulting from a disease or abnormal syndrome or condition that may not qualify to be called a disease. (wikipedia) Terminology
etiology pathogenesis signs vs. symptoms acute subacute chronic preclinical subclinical epidemiology incidence prevalence mortality morbidity primary prevention secondary prevention tertiary prevention Etiology Cause(s) of disease: biologic (bacteria, viruses) physical forces (trauma, burns, etc.) chemical agents (poisons, drugs) genetic disorders nutritional excesses or deficits idiopathic diseases Etiology Ways to categorize etiologies: Extrinsic vs. intrinsic Many overlaps! Diseases often organized by organ systems Examples: etiologies of obesity? etiologies of cancer? Manifestations Manifestations are changes in life processes which can be observed Manifestations are clearly apparent and obvious Most diseases have a long subclinical stage, during which biologic changes are happening, before the patient or clinician notices manifestations Manifestations
may present as symptoms: subjective manifestations which can be reported only by the client
“I have a stomachache” May present as signs: objective manifestations which can be observed or measured by the clinician vomiting Consequences of Disease A sequela(sequelae) is an abnormal outcome of a disease, treatment, or injury A complication is a new/separate condition arising from the primary condition or treatment
– Hypoxia from pneumonia, anemia from a bleeding gastric ulcer, deafness after taking ototoxic drug Urinary tract infection (UTI) from a foley catheter, pneumonia from influenza The Cell Structural and functional unit of life vital functions include: – obtaining nutrients and oxygen – metabolism (creation of energy) – elimination/excretion – adaptation to environment – replication/reproduction Cellular Structures Nucleus golgi complex endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Vacuoles mitochondria cell membrane lysosome peroxisome centrioles Brain of the cell Nucleus Holds all the genes Controls cell division – 23 pairs of chromosones (46 total) – Chromosones are large bunches of DNA Uses the DNA to direct cellular functions Ribosomes Freefloating or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum Are made up of pieces of RNA that are the instructions for making protein The RNA in a ribosome is copied from a – RNA is singlestranded gene in the nucleus Translate instructions in DNA into proteins Lysosomes Destructive organelles “cell digestion” Breakdown old cell parts and foreign substances Contain hydrolytic enzymes Are acidic Peroxisomes – breakdown peroxides Burst lysosomes damage the cell Mitochondria “The Powerhouse” aerobic metabolism
glucose in ATP out Cell membrane Also known as plasma membrane semipermeable Consists of lipids, CHO, and proteins Contains receptor proteins Celltocell communication Has a resting electrical potential Cell Membrane (a lipid bilayer) Lets substances in and out of cell by diffusion and transport Cell Membrane Transport Passive transport diffusion and facilitated diffusion osmosis Endocytosis and exocytosis Active transport ion channels Na/K ATPase membrane pump Example of endocytosis (phagocytosis) Metabolism Turning carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in to ENERGY!! Carbohydrates become glucose (easiest to metabolize) Fats become fatty acids Proteins become amino acids Two types: anaerobic and aerobic Anaerobic Metabolism Without Oxygen Occurs in the cytoplasm – Glycolysis glucose molecule is broken Waste product down, releasing energy in the form of 2 ATP – also releases 2 pyruvate that can feed the aerobic system if oxygen is present – If oxygen is not present the pyruvate becomes lactic acid: “feel the burn” Why Glycolysis? Anaerobic process in which two ATP molecules are formed from one glucose. Important in cells that lack mitochondria Important during periods of decreased oxygen delivery (cardiac arrest, first few minutes of exercising) Aerobic Metabolism Supplies about 90% of energy Occurs in the mitochondria Examples: End product – Citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation – More ATP per glucose molecule, but slower – Carbon dioxide, water exhalation Waste products Metabolism: Two Processes Catabolism Anabolism – breaking down – stored nutrients are broken down to produce energy – building up – complex molecules are formed from simpler ones ...
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