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Diabetes Mellitus - Diabetes Mellitus NURS 216 Spring 2010...

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Diabetes Mellitus NURS 216 Spring 2010 Sabra H. Smith, MS, RN, soon-to-be DNP
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Blood glucose The amount of sugar in the blood stream Glucose is needed to fuel metabolic processes Only fuel source for the CNS Intake Absorbed in GI tract Liver Regulates glucose release into blood Insulin The key to unlock the cell so glucose can enter
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How does the liver regulate blood glucose? 3 ways! Glycogen synthesis Glycogenesis Stored form of glucose Glycogen breakdown Glycogenolysis Breaks down into usable glucose Glucose synthesis from non-CHO sources Gluconeogenesis
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Pancreas Elongated organ near the small intestine Secretes digestive juices Small clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans Alpha cells- glucagon Beta cells- insulin Delta cells- somatostatin
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Functions of Insulin Only hormone that directly lowers blood glucose Increases glucose utilization by cells (will cause fat storage) Promotes storage of glucose as glycogen Prevents glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis Increases protein synthesis Stimulated by high blood concentrations of glucose
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Glucagon Anti-insulin Secreted in response to hypoglycemia Effects: increases blood glucose levels stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in liver (glycogenolysis) activates gluconeogenesis
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Hypoglycemia Manifestations Weakness Hunger Tremor Diaphoresis Cold Clammy
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Hyperglycemia Signs and symptoms Polydipsia Polyphagia Polyuria Dehydration
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