Endocrine part II

Endocrine part II - Disorders of the Endocrine System...

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Disorders of the Endocrine System Pituitary and Thyroid Disorders
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Anterior Pituitary Hormones GH – stimulated by GHRH - required for increasing body size in children, maintains organs and helps regulate protein synthesis in adults ACTH – stimulated by CRH - regulates adrenal cortex, cortisol production MSH – stimulated by CRH - controls melanin in the skin
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Anterior Pituitary Hormones TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) – stimulated by TRH - regulates thyroid function, causes T3 and T4 release FSH and LH – stimulated by GnRH - women: 28-day cyclic pattern, controls ovulation - men: continuous release, controls testosterone and sperm production
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Hypopituitarism Will usually affect all of the anterior pituitary hormones Tumor, necrosis, granulomatomas, idiopathic etiologies Effects of low pituitary function differ based on problem starting in childhood or adulthood
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Hypopituitarism - Childhood Somatic growth is slowed – pituitary dwarfism Sexual development in puberty is blunted Possibly adrenal problems, hypothyroidism, slow mental development, pale skin
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Hypopituitarism - Adulthood Problems occur in stages: - GH deficiency - hypogonadism - hypothyroidism - adrenal insufficiency May be very sensitive to insulin, easily hypoglycemic
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Testing for Hypopituitarism Injection of CRH, GHRH, TRH, and/or insulin fail to cause the normal response Also do Xrays of the pituitary b/c often tumors cause the decreased function Treat by replacing the deficient hormones
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Growth Hormone Hypersecretion Gigantism (Child) Acromegaly (Adult)-most common cause: somatotropic adenoma The bones can’t grow but the soft tissues can Increased ring, hat, shoe, and glove size Impotence in men/amenorrhea in women Deepening of the voice Thick, fleshy face; enlarged lips, nose, and ears Enlarged internal organs Osteoporosis and arthritis develop
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Acromegaly continued When due to a pituitary tumor, patients may have headaches or visual disturbances Treatment is difficult – sometimes surgery or radiation to the pituitary gland
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2011 for the course NURS 216 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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Endocrine part II - Disorders of the Endocrine System...

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