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Jan 20 - immunity - Immunity NURS 216 Spring 2010 Sabra...

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Immunity NURS 216 Spring 2010 Sabra Smith, MS, RN
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Objectives Categorize innate vs. adaptive immunity Learn basic immunologic vocabulary Understand the role of lymphoid organs Distinguish the roles of B, T, and NK cells Understand the structure, function and classes of antibodies Discuss different types of hypersensitivities
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Immunity The ability of the body to defend itself from invading microorganisms and damage by foreign substances, recognize self vs. non-self The “third line of defense” #1: anatomic barriers - general #2: inflammation - general #3: immune response - specific
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Immune Response Induced by the introduction of a foreign particle at the cellular level Stimulates a certain response that involves a variety of organs, cells and chemicals in a complex process to remove the defensive agent
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2 types of immunity Innate “natural resistance” can distinguish self from non-self can NOT distinguish b/t different pathogens inflammatory components Not produced by the immune system Adaptive (specific) slower response more effective and specific response Recognizes specific pathogens “classic immune system” Passive or acquired
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Innate Immunity Only reacts to microbes Defenses are in place before exposure Physical barriers (skin, antimicrobial enzymes) Phagocytes NK cells Inflammatory mediators
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Adaptive Immunity Controlled by lymphocytes Initiated by an antigen 2 types humoral (B-cell) Cell-mediated (T-cell)
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Vocabulary Time!
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Antigen/Immunogen Any substance which is capable of stimulating a specific immune response. Recognized by lymphocytes or by proteins called antibodies (Immunoglobulins - Ig) Types of antigens (foreign substances) microorganisms environmental agents (pollen, bee venom) vaccines transfusions, other human tissues
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Epitope An epitope is the portion of an antigen that is antigenic or capable of be recognized by a lymphocyte or antibody.
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Hapten A hapten is a small particle Too small to cause an immunological reaction singularly May combine with proteins in the body that act as carriers. If so, they can induce an immunological response. Ex. Pollen, PCN
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Antibodies (Immunoglobulins) Proteins produced by plasma cells in response to an antigen.
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Characteristics of the Immune System Memory is the ability to remember a previously encountered antigen. The immune system keeps a line of specific cells which can act against a previously encountered antigen.
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