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Mar 3 - Respiratory Dzs

Mar 3 - Respiratory Dzs - NURS216SPRING2010...

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NURS 216  SPRING 2010 Sabra H. Smith, MS, RN
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Intrapulmonary/      alveolar Intrapleural  intrathoracic
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Compliance:  the change in lung volume that occurs  with a change in intrapulmonary pressure Elastic recoil: tendency of lung tissue to return to  original size after being stretched Airway resistance: dependent upon pressure  gradient and radius of airway Airway compression and transpulmonary pressure:
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Ventilation is greatest in  dependent areas of the  lungs Perfusion is also greatest  in dependent areas of the  lungs
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Increased stiffness of lung tissue, chest cavity, or  both decreases compliance of lungs All lung volumes are reduced More effort is required to expand the chest and  lungs Extrapulmonary and pleural/parenchymal causes
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Drugs such as narcotics, barbituates, ETOH depress  the respiratory drive Injury to the brainstem Damage to nerves that innervate breathing muscles  – paralysis Neuromuscular diseases (ALS, Guillain-Barre,  myasthenia gravis)
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Kyphosis/scoliosis: Pectus excavatum: Rib fractures: Obesity hyperventilation syndrome:
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Upper: nose, orpharynx, larynx -common cold: rhinoviruses, RSV, adenoviruses -self-limiting, increased secretions, inflammation of  throat, HA, fatigue Lower: lower airways and lungs -influenza -pneumonias -tuberculosis
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Viral infection, can affect upper and lower  3 types: A,B,C -further divided by HA and NA (surface  glycoproteins) Children very susceptible Infectious period of about 6 days Can cause URI, viral pneumonia, or eventual  bacterial infection
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S/sx: RAPID onset of fever/chills, severe fatigue,  muscle aches, sore throat, cough Usually peak days 3-5 If viral pneumonia develops, comes on quickly and  causes tachypnea, tachycardia, cyanosis,  hypotension Treatment for uncomplicated URI is symptomatic Antiviral drugs available Flu shots!!!
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Inflammation of the lung parenchyma Often due to an infectious agent Classifications: typical or atypical distribution of infection community or hospital-acquired
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Risk Factors: -very young or old age (65+) -chronic illness (diabetes, COPD) -prolonged immobility -immunosuppression -alcoholism -malnutrition Other causes: inhalation of fumes, gastric contents
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