Mar 3 - Respiratory Dzs

Mar 3 - Respiratory Dzs - NURS 216 SPRING 2010 Sabra H....

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Unformatted text preview: NURS 216 SPRING 2010 Sabra H. Smith, MS, RN Intrapulmonary/ alveolar  Intrapleural  intrathoracic Compliance: the change in lung volume that occurs with a change in intrapulmonary pressure  Elastic recoil: tendency of lung tissue to return to original size after being stretched  Airway resistance: dependent upon pressure gradient and radius of airway  Airway compression and transpulmonary pressure: Ventilation is greatest in dependent areas of the lungs  Perfusion is also greatest in dependent areas of the lungs Increased stiffness of lung tissue, chest cavity, or both decreases compliance of lungs  All lung volumes are reduced  More effort is required to expand the chest and lungs  Extrapulmonary and pleural/parenchymal causes Drugs such as narcotics, barbituates, ETOH depress the respiratory drive  Injury to the brainstem  Damage to nerves that innervate breathing muscles paralysis  Neuromuscular diseases (ALS, Guillain-Barre, myasthenia gravis) Kyphosis/scoliosis:  Pectus excavatum:  Rib fractures:  Obesity hyperventilation syndrome: Upper: nose, orpharynx, larynx-common cold: rhinoviruses, RSV, adenoviruses-self-limiting, increased secretions, inflammation of throat, HA, fatigue  Lower: lower airways and lungs-influenza-pneumonias-tuberculosis Viral infection, can affect upper and lower  3 types: A,B,C-further divided by HA and NA (surface glycoproteins)  Children very susceptible  Infectious period of about 6 days  Can cause URI, viral pneumonia, or eventual bacterial infection S/sx: RAPID onset of fever/chills, severe fatigue, muscle aches, sore throat, cough  Usually peak days 3-5  If viral pneumonia develops, comes on quickly and causes tachypnea, tachycardia, cyanosis, hypotension  Treatment for uncomplicated URI is symptomatic  Antiviral drugs available  Flu shots!!! Inflammation of the lung parenchyma  Often due to an infectious agent  Classifications: typical or atypical distribution of infection community or hospital-acquired Risk Factors:-very young or old age (65+)-chronic illness (diabetes, COPD)-prolonged immobility-immunosuppression-alcoholism-malnutrition  Other causes: inhalation of fumes, gastric contents Community-acquired: infections that are contracted...
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2011 for the course NURS 216 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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Mar 3 - Respiratory Dzs - NURS 216 SPRING 2010 Sabra H....

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