Mar 25 - renal part II

Mar 25 - renal part II - Leftovers Urethrovesical or...

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Leftovers Urethrovesical or vesicouretral reflux micturition
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Developmental Disorders Agenesis/dysgenesis Renal hypoplasia Abnormal position or form -horseshoe kidney
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Cystic Diseases Simple cysts Acquired cystic disease Medullary sponge kidney Polycystic kidney disease
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Polycystic Kidney Disease Autosomal Dominant is most common type (600,000 Americans) Fluid filled cysts develop on the kidneys Results in or can be associated with » HTN » Aneurysms » Other organ cysts » Diverticula » May progress to renal failure
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Polycystic Kidney Disease Manifestations » abdominal mass » UTI » hematuria » renal insufficiency » hypertension Dx: US, CT scan Tx: Supportive
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Renal Obstructions Classify by site, degree, and duration Causes (table 24-1) » calculi » tumors » clots » pregnancy » neurogenic bladder » BPH
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Renal Obstructions Pathophysiology » GFR will temporarily increase » pressure rises in ureter, renal pelvis, and tubules » stasis of urine, likely leading to infection » structural damage: dilation of urinary tract, hydronephrosis » eventually atrophy
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Urolithiasis/Nephrolithiasis Most common cause of intrarenal obstructions Crystalline structures » Calcium (80%) » Magnesium Ammonium phosphate Staghorn, must have a UTI » Uric Acid » Cystine
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Nephrolithiasis Predisposing Factors » previous stone » male gender » abnormal urine pH » oliguria » hypercalcuria
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Kidney Stones S/Sx » PAIN !!! Intermittent colicky flank Dx: UA, Xray, IVP, Strain urine Tx: » Pain meds » Antibiotics » Surgery » Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy » PREVENT
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Glomerulus
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Immediately outside the capillary endothelium is the filtration membrane . This membrane represents a fusion of the endothelial basement membrane with the basement membrane of the glomerular epithelium (the podocytes ).
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Glomerulonephritis Definition » Inflammation of the glomeruli that distorts glomerular capillary structure and function, usually due to an immune reaction Manifestations » hematuria » proteinuria » decreased GFR » hypertension
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Glomerulonephritis Leading cause of chronic renal failure in US
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2011 for the course NURS 216 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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Mar 25 - renal part II - Leftovers Urethrovesical or...

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