Resp system A & P

Resp system A & P - Respiratory System Review...

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Unformatted text preview: Respiratory System Review Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Air enters at the nose or mouth • warmed and moisturized s Passes through the pharynx • warmed and moisturized s Passes through the larynx Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Conducting Airways • Upper airways • Trachea • Bronchial tree s Purposes • • • • warm and humidify air prevent entry of foreign materials passage way to the alveoli Lined with mucociliary blanket Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Trachea • • • • 4.5 inches x 1 inch begins at the cricoid cartilage ends at the carina cartilaginous rings s Right and Left Main Bronchi Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Terminal Bronchioles • Anatomic Dead Space s Respiratory Bronchioles • Participate in gas exchange s Alveolar Ducts • Two alveolar ducts branch from each Two respiratory bronchiole respiratory • Surrounded by alveoli Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Alveoli • Functional unit of the respiratory system, Functional 300 million, large total surface area 300 s Type I Alveolar Cells • gas exchange s Type II Alveolar Cells • Produce, store, and secrete surfactant Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Surfactant • • • • lowers surface tension lubricates prevents the collapse of the alveoli iincreases lung compliance (ability to ncreases stretch) stretch) • eases the work of breathing Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Deficiency of surfactant • alveolar instability • alveolar collapse (atelectasis) • impairment of gas exchange – preemies Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Right Lung • Three lobes s Left Lung • Two lobes Apices s Bases s Parietal and visceral pleura s Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Muscles of ventilation • • • • Diaphragm External Intercostal Muscles Internal Intercostal Muscles Accessory Muscles Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Innervation s Bronchioles s • • s Parasympathetic (Bronchoconstriction) Sympathetic (Bronchodilation) Respiratory Center • Pons and medulla (brainstem) Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory Elasticity (tissue recoil) is the tendency Elasticity of a structure to resist stretching, and when stretched will return to its normal shape shape s Permits Passive Expiration s Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Airway Resistance • Pressure which must be overcome to Pressure inflate the lungs inflate s Resistance • • • • nose (greatest) oropharynx larynx conducting airways- bronchioles conducting Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Inspiration • • • • size of chest cavity increases diaphragm contracts and lowers intercostal muscles contract oxygen enters the body, air moves from oxygen area of greater pressure (atmosphere) to less pressure (lungs) less Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Expiration • • • • • Decrease in the size of the chest cavity Diaphragm relaxes and moves upward Intercostal muscles relax Rib cage returns to its resting state Carbon dioxide is exhaled Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Expiration • Airways decrease in size • Alveolar ducts decrease in size s Inspiration • Airways increase in size • Alveoli increase in size Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Airway resistance • Increased in bronchoconstriction • Airflow decreases s Airway resistance • Decreased in bronchodilation • Airflow increases Anatomy of the Respiratory System System s Upright Position • Bases aerate better than the apices s Supine Position • No difference between the bases and the No apices apices Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Respiratory s Factors That Increase the Work of Factors Breathing Breathing • • • • Decrease pulmonary compliance Increased airway resistance Active expirations Use of accessory muscles Protective Mechanisms of Respiratory Systems: Respiratory Nasal Hairs s Nasal Mucosa s Tonsils and adenoids s Ciliated epithelium s Mucus produced by goblet cells s Alveolar macrophages s Sneeze reflex s Cough reflex s Gas Transport (part 1) Gas s Ventilation • the exchange of air between the lungs and the the atmosphere the – Pulmonary ventilation Pulmonary • the total exchange of gas – Alveolar ventilation Alveolar • the effective ventilation of the alveoli Gas Transport (part 2) Gas s Perfusion • The flow of blood through the capillaries The surrounding the alveoli surrounding Gas Transport (part 3) Gas s Diffusion • Movement of gas across membrane – difference in pressure – surface area – thickness of alveoli/capillary – type of gas Ventilation/Perfusion Ventilation/Perfusion V = alveolar gas flow (4 L/min) s Q = capillary blood flow (5 L/min) s Ventilation/Perfusion Ventilation/Perfusion Main purposes: R/O PE, determine lung Main function function s Normal V/Q Ratio s • 4000 ml air • 5000 ml blood s Normal V/Q 0.8 Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve Oxyhemoglobin Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve Curve s There are certain conditions that will There result in a high or low affinity of oxygen to Hgb to Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve Curve s Increased affinity of Hgb for O2 • less oxygen is released to the tissues s causes for this shift • alkalemia, hypocapnia, hypothermia s Decreased affinity • More oxygen is released to the tissues s causes for this shift • acidemia, hypercapnia Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary s Pulmonary Function Tests • FVC • FEV1 forced vital capacity forced expiratory volume 1 forced sec sec • FEV1/FVC 80% • TV tidal volume (at rest) • TLC total lung capacity ...
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