8-24 kinetics and dynamics

8-24 kinetics and dynamics - Pharmacokinetics...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 2/16/11 Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics NURS 324 Fall 2010 Dr. Smith
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2/16/11 Pharmacokinetics Pharmacokinetics: pharmakon + kinesis the motion of drugs through the body Individual variations affecting pharmacokinetics are major sources of differences in response to drugs all stages of drug movement through
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2/16/11 Four Major Processes Absorption-the movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood Distribution-the movement of drugs throughout the body Metabolism –biotransformation, the enzymatic alteration of drug structure Excretion-the removal of drugs from
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2/16/11 ADME Dashed lines indicate membranes that must be crossed in the body
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2/16/11 Transport Across Membranes Passage through channels or pores – very few drugs cross this way Transport system – usually proteins in the cell membrane that move a drug molecule in or out of cell, selective for specific molecules Direct penetration of the membrane – most common, molecule must be
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2/16/11 Absorption The amount and rate of drug absoprtion determine the intensity and onset of effects Factors affecting absoprtion: -route of administration -lipid solubility -rate of dissolution -pH
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2/16/11 Common Routes of Drug Administration Parenteral Intravenous (IV) Intramuscular (IM) Enteral Oral (PO) Sublingual (SL) Rectal (PR) Oral administration is preferred in most situations Parenteral routes are used when drugs need to be administered quickly, as in an emergency
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2/16/11 Distribution Blood flow to tissues is rarely a limiting factor Ability of drug to leave vascular system - affected by protein binding
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8-24 kinetics and dynamics - Pharmacokinetics...

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