Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, and Cold Medications

Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, and Cold Medications - Asthma...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 2/16/11 Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, and Cold Medications NURS 324 Fall 2010 Dr. Smith
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2/16/11 Asthma A chronic, inflammatory disease of the respiratory system Some type of allergen binds to IgE on mast cells, which causes release of several inflammatory mediators Inflammatory mediators cause immediate bronchoconstriction, delayed inflammation, and create a
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2/16/11
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2/16/11
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2/16/11 Drugs for Asthma Medication categories: anti- inflammatories and bronchodilators Anti-inflammatories -glucocorticoids (inhaled and PO) -leukotriene modifiers Bronchodilators -B2-agonists (long and short-acting)
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2/16/11 Administration of Inhaled Drugs Inhalation has several advantages Metered Dose Inhalers (MDIs) -require hand-lung coordination, only small amount reaches the lungs -spacers increase delivery to lungs Dry-Powder Inhalers (DPIs) -no propellant, breath-activated
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2/16/11 Glucocorticoids Taken daily for long-term control All asthma patients except for those with very mild symptoms need to be on one MOA: decrease synthesis of inflammatory mediators and decreased activity of inflammatory cells, leading to decreased mucosal
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2/16/11 Glucocorticoids Pharmacokinetics Administration -usually inhaled -PO for severe cases, use for brief duration Effects develop slowly; not for stopping an ongoing attack! Adverse Effects: inhaled Oropharyngeal candidiasis Dysphonia both can be reduced Adrenal suppression possible with long-term,
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2/16/11 Glucocorticoid Adverse Effects: Oral Adverse effects become a problem with long-term (~10-14 days and longer) use and at high doses Osteoporosis, hyperglycemia, PUD Growth suppression (in children) Adrenal suppression – must supplement during times of physical
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