History, Reconstruction, and Black Codes 2In April of 1865, the bitter Civil War finally came to an end after four years of combat. Even though the fighting had ended, the social structure right before the Civil war thus far remained the same. The overall damage of the war and emancipation left the antebellum South financially, physically, and emotionally devastated. Once this war was over confederate currency and the bonds that were previously purchased to support the war efforts were worthless; not to mention cities in ruins, the collapsing of property values and many personal fortunes disappearing as independence begin to look promising for African Americans. The black codes commonly known black laws (1865-1866) were laws that were put in place by Southern states ofthe Confederacy that had been rejected control over newly freed African American slaves. Black Codes were part of a larger pattern of whites trying to maintain political dominanceand suppress thefreedmen, newly emancipated African-American slaves. Black codes were essentially replacements for slave codes in those states. Before the war, Northern states that had prohibited slavery also enacted Black Codes: Connecticut, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and New York enacted laws to discourage free blacks from residing in those states. They were deniedequal political rights, including the right to vote, the right to attend public schools, and the right to equal treatment under the law. Some of the Northern states repealed such laws around the same time that the Civil War ended, and slavery was abolished by constitutional amendment (2005, Ohio University Press). The federal government nor white Southerners committed to the thought of equal rights for African Americans. A level of befuddlement, terror, and even annoyance could be anticipated from white southerners after attempting to defend slavery which, ultimately led to its destruction.