Chapter 4_Human_Development

Chapter 4_Human_Development - Chapter 4: Prenatal...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4: Prenatal Development and Birth Three Periods of Prenatal Development Prenatal Prenatal development is divided into three main periods – germinal Period (0-2 weeks) (0– embryonic Period (3-8 weeks) (3– fetal Period (9 weeks-birth) weeks- Germinal First First 14 days Conception Conception occurs in fallopian tubes Cell Cell differentiation and multiplication 42% 42% of conceptions successfully implant in uterus –Blastocyst –Placenta –Implantation 1 Embryo Third Third through the eighth week major major organs develop at at eight weeks, organism is less than 2˝ long Embryonic Development Fetus Fetal Fetal Period (9 weeks-birth) weeksSex Sex organs develop Brain Brain development is significant Age Age of viability occurs around 22 weeks 2 Third Month Fetus Fetus has all its body parts Weighs Weighs approximately 3 ounces, about 3 inches long Growth Growth is rapid Fetus Fetus is too small survive outside of the womb Middle 3 Months – Heartbeat becomes stronger – Cardiovascular system more active – Brain increases about six times in size age age of viability – twenty-two weeks can twentysurvive outside the mother’s uterus The Final Three Months: From Viability to Full Term – Viability life life outside the womb is possible born born in the seventh month requires intensive hospital care and life-support systems lifedifference difference between preterm and newborn is the maturation of neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular systems 3 Brain Development Risk Reduction Toxins, Toxins, illnesses and experiences can harm a developing person before birth – teratology a science of risk analysis, the study of birth science defects – Teratogens Viruses, Viruses, drugs, and chemicals – behavioral teratogens Agents Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child’s intellectual and emotional functioning Determining Risk Determining Determining Risk – risk analysis Timing Timing of Exposure – critical period 4 Teterogens Caffeine Caffeine Alcohol Alcohol Nicotine Nicotine Cocaine Cocaine Methamphetamine Methamphetamine Marijuana Marijuana Heroin Heroin Birth Process 5 Newborn’s First Minutes – Apgar scale a quick assessment of a newborn’s body quick functioning. Other Birth Methods Cesarean Cesarean section – fetus is removed through incisions in the mother’s abdomen and uterus – Perform because of medical complications Mom Mom or fetus – anoxia – anoxia a lack of oxygen that, if prolonged during lack birth, can cause brain damage or death to the baby 6 The Birth Process Social Social Support – Mother, Father, and a Good Start – Help from fathers parental parental alliance – cooperation between a mother and a father based on their mutual communication to their children… the parents agree to support each other in their shared parental roles 7 Postpartum Depression 8-15% of women experience Irritability, Irritability, sleep and eating disruptions, sadness, feeling overwhelmed and inadequate as a mom, no interest or overly worried about baby Take Home Messages Prenatal Prenatal development accounts for the biggest changes in our lives Teratogens Teratogens significantly change development – We can be proactive – Timing is also vital, as well as dose Survival Survival is dependant upon maturity For For next class- Chapter 5 the terrible twos! class- 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2011 for the course PSYCH 150 taught by Professor Decicco during the Spring '10 term at CUNY Hunter.

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