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Anthropology Unit 3 Notes

Anthropology Unit 3 Notes - Anthropology Unit 3-Later...

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Anthropology Unit 3 -Later Hominid Evolution— -Early Homo (H. Habilis) (Handyman-Tool Makers) -Leakeys: Olduvai Gorge, Lake Turkana (1960s) -KNM-ER 1470, 750 cc brain size-seperates from Australpithocenes -1972—East Lake Rudolph, 1.9-2 Ma -Homo Erectus (Means upright human) -First found at Lake Turkana and Olduvai Gorge -KNM-WT 15000 “Turkana Boy”—Found in 1984, 80% Complete, 1.5 Ma -KNM-ER 3733—Found in mid 70s, Very complete skull, 1.7-1.8 Ma -Lake Turkana -Zhoukoudian—Cave outside China -Avg. 1000 cc brain (2/3 Human) -Typical long and low skull shape -Cranial Buttresses—Thickening of bone -Supra-orbital Torus—Brow Ridge -Nuchal Torus—Thickening at the back of the skull -Back teeth get smaller and incisors get bigger -Cortical Bone—Thicker, provides strength -Rough and Tumble Lifestyle -Hunting/Gathering -First to hunt -Persistence hunting -Men hunt, females gather -Java—site of first H. Erectus fossil found 4/1 -Acheulean Culture— -Core Tool—Rock you start with, Flake—pieces taken -Hand-axe—Sharpens all around and comes to a point -Cleaver—Flat sharp edge across the top -Biface— -Cut-Marks— 4/6 -Archaic H. Sapiens— -Chronospecies—A division of an evolving lineage ( -Anegenesis— -Transitional— -Most people believe them to be a part of our evolving lineage -Moderate brow ridge -Neandertals—
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-Mostly Eurasian Phenomenon—Found throughout Europe, Middle East -Lived from 120,000 until 90,000 Ya -Means Neander’s Valley -Marcellin Boule—Published La Chapelle interpretations in 1908 (Savage imagery) -Said they had nothing to do with our evolution and more closely resembled apes than us -La Chapelle—The Chapel, Small village in 1906 where Neandertal skeleton found -Mid-facial Projection—Outward angled cheek bones (Projecting, broad nose) -Molars get smaller, Incisors get larger…Extreme wear on the crowns -On average, had bigger brains. (1400 cc) -Barrel Chest— - -Shortened Distal Limb Segments— -Short from knee to foot and forearm down, BUT extremely powerful muscles -Stocky -Surface Area/Volume Ratio— -Holds heat better, Want to minimize the ratio -Bergman’s Rule—Body Size—Cold adapted populations have large bodies -Allen’s Rules—Short Distal for cold adapted populations -Non-Masticatory Tooth Use— -Used teeth as tools -Modern Inuits have similar dental wear to Neandertals -La Ferrassie—Site near _____, -Mousterian Culture— -Levallois Flake-Shows new level of sophistication, sharp all around, prepare with striking platform, hit, and it will fracture perfectly -Prepared Core- -Flake Tools- -Hafting- -Burial/Ritual— 4/6 -Neandertals 4/13 -New Discovery— -Australopithecus Sediba—Malapa Cave, south Africa ~ 1.75-2 Ma (April 9, 2010) -Likely a descendant of A. Africanus -Homo Erectus—Bigger brains and bigger bodies -Modern Homo sapiens— -Cro Magnon—Early modern humans in Europe -Reduced Robusticity—humans are weaker in comparison to earlier hominids -Likely due in part to projectile weapons -Atlatl—Spear thrower—provides more distance and accuracy in throwing
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Anthropology Unit 3 Notes - Anthropology Unit 3-Later...

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