Unformatted text preview: MMC 4200 Spring 2011 Chapter 3 Prof. Sandra Chance The First Amendment The First Amendment Methods of Controlling Expression Chapter 3 Prior Restraints and Postpublication Punishment
• Injunctions – New York Times v. United States • Military Security Review • Licensing – Ok for public forums (parades) • No discrimination based on content – Broadcast‐ physical limits on spectrum justify licensing. Must operate in public interest. • Red Lion v. FCC – Cable • Governments grant “franchises” for construction and operation of system • Discriminatory Taxation – No special taxes on newspaper & magazines • No laws which impose financial burden on speakers based on the content of their speech. – Simon & Schuster v. New York State Crime Victims Board Copyright©2011 S. Chance 1 MMC 4200 Spring 2011 Chapter 3 Prof. Sandra Chance New York Times v. U. S.
Pentagon Papers Prior restraint at issue Prior restraint presumptively unconstitutional Rule of Law: A prior restraint may be appropriate where publication of vital government information threatens national security. • But government didn’t meet burden in this case. • • • • • Speaker • Location of Speaker
•Plaza Preacher First Amendment Analysis Depends On: • Content of Speech
•Fighting Words/Hate Speech/Account of Crimes • Type of Regulation
– Content‐based or Content‐Neutral ? Restrictions on Speech
Content‐based regulations are Content almost always struck down. • Non‐content (content‐neutral) can be constitutional. Copyright©2011 S. Chance 2 MMC 4200 Spring 2011 Chapter 3 Prof. Sandra Chance Two Tests (operate the same)
– Judges use:
• The O’Brien Test for laws that incidentally regulate expression (noise ordinances) • Time, Place, Manner Test
– Regulates expressive activities (picketing) – Tests require government to show: 1. significant (substantial) governmental interest (health & safety of citizens) 2. narrowly tailored and 3. alternative channels. Expression v. Conduct
• Expression designed to communicate ideas. • Conduct not protected. • Symbolic speech or expressive conduct is protected but can be regulated. “Son of Sam” Law Copyright©2011 S. Chance 3 ...
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- Spring '09
- Years in the future, Prof. Sandra Chance