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History-1 & 2 - RTV 3007 History Quick Facts Quick...

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Unformatted text preview: RTV 3007 History Quick Facts Quick First radio broadcast: Reginald Fessenden, Christmas Eve, 1906 First radio network company: NBC, 1926 First “Top 40” radio broadcasts: 1952 Quick Facts Quick First public demonstration of TV: 1939 World’s Fair Cost of first TV commercial: $4 (1941) Cost of commercial minute in 2006 Super Bowl: $ 5.0 million The Inventors The key to telecommunications is that electromagnetic energy can be transmitted between two points. Early inventors and inventions paved the way for the electronic mass media The Inventors James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic radiation The Inventors Samuel Morse invented the telegraph (1844) Morse Code Translator The Inventors Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone (1878) The Inventors Both the telegraph and telephone businesses supported themselves through commercial means Both the telegraph and the telephone were point to point communication media. They sent a message from one source to a receiver The Inventors 19th Century Wired Communication • Weaknesses of Wired Communication The Inventors 19th Century Wired Communication • Weaknesses of Wired Communication Construction The Inventors 19th Century Wired Communication • Weaknesses of Wired Communication Construction Maintenance The Inventors Guglielmo Marconi ­ Started experimenting with radio transmitters and receivers. Eventually he developed a powerful wireless business The Inventors Guglielmo Marconi obtains patent for his wireless telegraph (1896) The Inventors Reginald Fessenden ­ tested his alternator on Christmas Eve, 1906, demonstrated that voice could be transmitted over the “ether.” • Fessenden’s alternator produced a continuous wave that was needed for the transmission of voice or music. The Inventors De Forest’s “Audion” made it possible to amplify weak radio signals. The Audion modified the “Fleming valve” by inserting a wire grid between the plate of the tube and its cathode. • This invention helped make modern electronics possible ( http://www.cedmagic.com/history/deforest­audion.html) Development of Wireless De Forest’s audion got him into patent trouble with the Marconi Company. British Marconi and its American subsidiary dominated radio. Development of Wireless • Maritime Influences Naval Commercial Legal / Regulatory Development of Wireless Maritime Disasters: The Titanic Development of Wireless Maritime Disasters: The Titanic Development of Wireless Maritime Disasters: The Titanic Development of Wireless Wireless Ship Act of 1910 is first radio law Unfortunately, the law did not specify how many hours a day the wireless operators had to stay at their posts Development of Wireless Wireless Ship Act of 1910 is first radio law Titanic sunk April 15, 1912 with no radioman on duty (1,517 dead) Congress was spurred to action and enacted a law requiring staffing day and night Development of Wireless Radio Act of 1912 Regulatory Authority to Secretary of Commerce Set Frequencies and Hours of Operation Had to Issue License on Application Development of Wireless Radio before World War I was primarily point­to­point communication used like the telegraph. General Electric, AT&T and Westinghouse were also interested in the radio business Development of Wireless During the First World War, the Navy took control of all radio operations in the U.S. The Navy assumed all responsibility for patent infringement and installed radio equipment in all of its ships. Development of Wireless By the end of the war, technology had advanced rapidly as a result of the Navy’s actions. Many radio operators received training during the war The Birth of RCA Radio Corporation of America was formed after the war The Birth of RCA The Creation of RCA • Fear of Foreign Control • US Navy Leadership • Participants: Navy, GE, AT&T, Westinghouse The Birth of RCA Radio Corporation of America was formed after the war • Took controlling interest of the American Marconi company • Parent company was the General Electric Company • Was in the business of point­to­point communication­ this was before broadcasting became popular The Birth of RCA The RCA agreement allowed GE, AT&T and Westinghouse to take advantage of each others’ discoveries • GE and Westinghouse would manufacture radio equipment, RCA would sell it and AT&T would build transmitters From Wireless To Broadcasting Radio burst on the scene in the 1920s because: • Thousands of hobbyists were trained in radio during the war • Technological improvements made during the war gave radio better reception • Business interests began to realize that broadcasting might make money From Wireless To Broadcasting Debate ­ Who Was First? • KCBS – San Jose broadcast a few farm reports in 1909 • 9XM – Madison Wisc. University physics dept. to a few crystal sets 1909 • WWJ ­ Detroit initial broadcast Aug 31, 1920 • KDKA – PGH uninterrupted service since 1920 Broadcasting Frank Conrad and KDKA Broadcasting KDKA ­ Frank Conrad, a Westinghouse engineer, began experimental broadcasts in Pittsburgh. Westinghouse, RCA, GE and AT&T started experimental stations. Broadcasting At the beginning of 1922, there were 28 stations actively broad­ casting. At the end of 1922, there were 570. Interference became a major headache. Broadcasting Between 1920 and 1927 radio grew from a fad to a major industry Commercial advertising was started on WEAF in 1923, soon other stations followed Broadcasting The Rapid Growth of Radio Broadcasting Why Operate a Station? Why Buy a Radio Receiver? Broadcasting Getting Programs: Networks • Early Ad Hoc Networks • WEAF­WMAF­­The Rise of the Telephone Group • The Radio Group­­Technically Challenged Broadcasting How to Pay the Bills? • The Radio Group: Indirect Support • The Telephone Group: “Toll” Broadcasting Broadcasting AT&T Bows Out • Internal Questions • Government Concerns Broadcasting The AT&T­­RCA Agreement • AT&T Leaves Broadcasting • AT&T Gives up Monopoly Claim • WEAF Sold to RCA • AT&T Controls Network Relay System The Rise of Modern Broadcast The Networks Networks David Sarnoff started NBC in 1926. NBC began radio network broadcasting, overseeing two radio networks The Rise of Modern Broadcast The Networks Networks The National Broadcasting Company • First Company Established to Operate Network • Controlled Two Networks: Telephone Group­­>NBC Red­­>NBC­­ >NBC Television Radio Group­­>NBC Blue­­>ABC­­>ABC/Capital Cities­­> Disney/ABC The Rise of Modern Broadcast The Networks Networks Origins of CBS (1927): Investment by Columbia Phonograph Columbia Drops Out William Paley Buys Columbia “Tiffany Network” The Rise of Modern The Broadcasting: Regulation Broadcasting: Regulation After KDKA • Chaos More Stations than Frequencies Some Stations Ignored Rules Some With Bad Equipment The Rise of Modern The Broadcasting: Regulation Broadcasting: Regulation After KDKA • Solutions? National Radio Conferences Zenith Decision The Rise of Modern The Broadcasting: Regulation Broadcasting: The Radio Act of 1927 made some key assumptions: • The radio spectrum was a national resource. Individuals could not own frequencies • Licensees would have to operate in the public interest • Government censorship was forbidden The Rise of Modern The Broadcasting: Regulation Broadcasting: Congress established a temporary 5 member commission to regulate broadcasting in 1927 The FRC was formed partly to solve the growing interference problems The Rise of Modern The Broadcasting: Regulation Broadcasting: The Radio Act of 1927 Established Federal Radio Commission • Gave FRC Authority to Determine Licensees • Placed Emphasis on Local Stations The Rise of Modern The Broadcasting: Regulation Broadcasting: The Radio Act of 1927 • Provided Stability for Evolving Medium • Provisions Folded into Communications Act of 1934 The Rise of Modern The Broadcasting: Regulation Broadcasting: The Radio Act of 1927 was superseded by the Federal Communications Act of 1934. The FCC, a permanent body established to oversee regulation of wireless and wired communication, was established The Golden Age of Radio Radio listenership skyrocketed during this period Revenues increased from $40 million in 1930 to $506 million in 1948 The Golden Age of Radio Radio network affiliates increased from 131 in 1930 to 1,104. Radio became the number one source of home entertainment The Golden Age of Radio Radio network programs were primarily music/variety programs Big Bands became popular Amos n’ Andy, considered racist today, was a huge hit starting in 1929 The Golden Age of Radio Edwin Armstrong invents FM in 1933 FM sounds better and has less static than AM The Golden Age of Radio RCA’s David Sarnoff decided not to support the new innovation, wanted to focus on television instead World War II halted the development of FM FCC changes the FM band The Golden Age of Radio Radio news grew in importance during the second world war Television • The Rise of TV Technical Developments: RCA television is an all electronic scanning system largely credited to the work of two inventors: Vladimir Zworykin Philo Farnsworth Television • The Rise of TV Technical Developments • RCA’s electronic lab used Zworykin’s (inconoscope) & Farnsworth (image dissector camera) inventions in 1920s • RCA first experimental TV station W2XF in 1936 Television • The Rise of TV Technical Developments • RCA demonstrates TV 1939 Worlds Fair NYC. Development costs are a staggering $156 million • National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) adopts picture format in 1941 Television • The Rise of TV The TV Freezes: * Further development of television is interrupted by World War II. * 1948 FCC puts a freeze on new television licenses Television • The Rise of TV The Sixth Report and Order ­ issued in 1952, addressed several important issues • • • • Table of channel assignments is constructed The FCC opens up the Ultra High Frequency band Standards for color television are set Educational television channels are set aside Television • The Rise of TV Color • Early NTSC standard black & white • FCC replaced CBS mechanical standard (1950) with RCA’s electronic standard in 1954 • Color doesn’t take off until mid 1960s (in 1/3 of all TV homes by 1969) Television • The Rise of TV ­ UHF • Established in Sixth Report & Order (1952) • Band not included on many early TV sets because most early stations were all network affiliates (NBC, CBS, ABC, DuMont) in VHF band Television TV has an impact on radio • It completely changed radio network broadcasting • Radio stations began to turn to specialized audiences • TV brought the radio and record industry closer • Radio stations became more dependent on local revenue Television TV has an impact on radio • 78, 33 1/3, & 45 RPM Records • Transistors Make Radios Smaller • Format changes • FM • Fragmentation Television’s Growth Curve Rapid Adoption by Households • 1948 200,000 TV sets • 1955 32.5 million TV sets (65% of all homes) • 1954 TV set costs $1000 Television’s Growth Curve Television's Growth Curve 1945­1960: The “Golden” Age of Television • National Impact • Increased Variety News and Sitcoms Elvis and Quiz Shows Live Theatrical Productions Television’s Growth Curve Disruptions: Scandals • McCarthyism • Payola • Quiz Shows Television’s Growth Curve 1961 ­ Congress passes the All­Channel Receiver Bill 1962 ­ Telstar is launched Community Antenna TV starts in rural communities Television’s Growth Curve *DuMont television network goes bankrupt in 1958 *ABC merges with United Paramount Theaters Television’s Growth Curve *Westerns are very popular *Nightly newscasts are only 15 minutes long ”The National Hearth” Television UHF gets a boost from cable as cable has to carry all local stations in a market Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 creates PBS 1971, Congress bans cigarette advertising on television and radio Television Television with violent content becomes popular in the 1960s Escapist comedies and television in the late 1960s give way to more realism with MASH and All In The Family Television Growing popularity of cable provides competition for broadcast televisions Videocassette recorders become popular items The Fox Network starts broadcasting in 1987 Television Mergers cause all the major TV networks to change hands In 1980 Cable News Network forces TV nets to reexamine their news operations WB and UPN networks start in the 1990s Television Slicing the Audience into Smaller Pieces Cable, Home Video, Home Satellite Indies, New Networks (Broadcast) • Fox (1987) • UPN (1995) , WB (1995) CW replaces UPN & WB in 2006 MyNetwork Launched 2006 Television At The Turn of the New Century • Further Consolidation Viacom buys CBS (2000) AOL merges with Time Warner (2001) Comcast acquires AT&T Broadband (2002) News Corp acquires DirecTV (2004) NBC merges with Universal (2004) Technological Advances Electronic News Gathering (ENG) revolutionizes TV coverage Satellite News Gathering extends the ability to broadcast from nearly anywhere in the world Technological Advances Large TVRO dishes are replaced by direct broadcast satellite (DBS) systems Emergence of the Internet and World Wide Web Radio In The Video Age The transistor makes radio a truly portable medium in the 1950s By 1972, FM had overtaken AM as the most popular radio band Radio In The Video Age During the 1970s radio networks started to reemerge Formats become highly specialized, appealing to very specific demographic audiences Broadcasting In the 21 Century st Subscription based satellite radio has joined AM and FM, providing new channels and formats Increased mobility offers users the ability to download and play back when convenient Broadcasting In the 21 Century st Internet usage has cut down on the amount of time people spend watching television DVDs continue to grow in popularity Cable Television Cable Television Cost of monthly cable service 1950: $3.00 Cost of monthly cable service 2006: $73 (includes high­speed Internet access) First satellite TV broadcast: NBC, 1962 Cost of the first home satellite dish: $36,000 (1979) Cable Television Cost of DirecTV satellite system 2006: $0 (But you have to sign­up for a year of service) First Consumer VCR: 1975 Development of the Internet: 1986 Development of the World Wide Web: 1991 Cable Television Cable started in rural towns such as Astoria, Oregon and Lansford, Pennsylvania Cable Television Community Antenna TV literally was a sharing of a common antenna system to pick up television signals By 1952, about 70 cable systems were serving 15,000 homes in the U.S. Cable Television Early on the FCC avoided regulating cable and decided it was really an ancillary service to broadcast television Cable Television In 1972, the FCC established more formal rules • Local communities, states and the FCC were to regulate cable • New systems would have a minimum of 20 channels • There would be carriage of all local stations • There would be regulations on importing distant signals • Pay cable services would be approved Cable Television Mid­1970s: Gerald Levin and Ted Turner Cable Growth Satellite distribution of signals made it possible to distribute programming to local cable franchises In 1975, HBO became the first pay service distributed via satellite Cable Television Late­1970s/Early 1980s • MSO Consolidation • Rise of New Networks (via satellite) ESPN (1979), CNN (1980), MTV (1981) Cable Growth The Cable Communications Act of 1984 • • reduced FCC control over cable made the local community the major force in cable regulation Large companies rushed to get local franchise rights to build cable systems Cable Growth Between 1975 to 1987 • • By 1988, the cable industry was dominated by large multiple­system operators (MSOs) The number of cable systems tripled Percentage of homes with cable increased from 14% to 50% Cable Growth Annual revenue from subscribers amounted to $48 billion in 2000 By 1988, the cable industry was dominated by large multiple­system operators (MSOs) Alternatives To Cable TVRO (satellite television receive­only earth stations) popular option for people who could not get cable. • By 1990, three million consumers had these large dishes DBS took the nation by storm in the mid­1990s • Today there are more than 20 million subscribers Alternatives To Cable Wireless Cable (MMDS ­ multichannel, multipoint distribution systems) uses microwave technology to distribute television programming. • Today there are about 1 million subscribers Alternatives To Cable Broadcast video tape recorders debuted in 1956. SONY introduced the Betamax VCR in 1975. • They were quickly adopted by the television networks Today about 95 million households own a recording device (about 90% penetration) • In 1984, the Supreme Court ruled that home taping did not violate copyright law Alternatives To Cable DVDs provide home recording options In 2001 about 18 million American homes had a DVD In 2006, about 60 million American homes had a DVD Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) record television programs on hard disk drive Alternatives To Cable In the late 1970s, the Video Shack chain opened Video rental stores sprung up across America • By 1984, there were about 20,000 specialty video rental shops Industry concentration has created several large rental chains Long term, video rental faces competition from pay­per­ view services on cable and DBS Alternatives To Cable The Internet The Internet refers to the global interconnection of computer networks using common communication protocols The World Wide Web is one of several services available on the Internet The Birth of the Internet Cold war struggles between the U.S. and the former Soviet Union speeds development of the Internet Question posed in 1963 by RAND, a cold war think tank. “How could the U.S. communicate after a nuclear attack? The Birth of the Internet Answer The communication network would require: The intelligence to reside in the endpoints Any endpoint could talk to any other endpoint Network Routing be self­healing after attack No centralized control Messages divided into packets that could take any number of paths from source to destination The Birth of the Internet The SAGE Project (early warning radar system) provides the U.S. with advanced warning against a missile attack Computer and communication technology • modem and video display terminal were outgrowths of the SAGE project The Birth of the Internet Paul Baran and Donald Davies, working independently, develop theoretical ideas for making computer networks less susceptible to attack Packet switching was an outgrowth of this early research Packet switching provided for small data packets to be sent over distributed communications networks The Birth of The Internet In 1968, the U.S. funds ARPANET • Purpose was to build the first interactive computer network Network control programs become the forerunner of the Internet’s TCP (Transport Control Protocol) • In 1969, ARPANET became operational The Birth of The Internet Ray Tomlinson develops e­mail in the early 1970s USENET extended use of the system to many university researchers The Birth of The Internet Personal Computers: The New Mass Medium Apple Computer’s Macintosh revolutionized the personal computer market The Birth of The Internet Networks such as Compuserve and America Online provided social usage networking Domain names such as .gov, .edu and .net extended the usefulness of networking The Internet NSFNET linked supercomputer centers across the country together The Internet was born in when NSFNET replaced ARPANET • 30 times more bandwidth The Internet Independent Service Providers (ISP) allowed everybody to connect to the new network The World Wide Web In 1989, Tim Berners­Lee develops idea of using a graphical interface for retrieving information on network databases Hyperlinks to call up information on remote computers The World Wide Web URL (universal resource loc...
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