Programming-8 & 9

Programming-8 & 9 - Programming Programming Radio...

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Unformatted text preview: Programming Programming Radio Regulation and Format Radio Regulation and Format Design American Radio has ‘format freedom’ Task ­ provide attractive programming to meet informational and entertainment needs of audience Matrix of Radio Programming Matrix of Radio Programming Local Programming ­ original programming produced by radio station Prerecorded or Syndicated Programming ­ obtained from a commercial supplier outside the station Network Programming ­ obtained from radio nets such as ABC, CBS or National Public Radio Kinds of Radio Programming Kinds of Radio Programming Music ­ most popular form of radio programming Prerecorded or syndicated 9 out of 10 stations use music as programming backbone Kinds of Radio Programming Kinds of Radio Programming News/Talk Local shows includes news, sports, weather, traffic Popular talk personalities are syndicated via satellite Modes of Radio Production Modes of Radio Production Local, live Production ­ station employs its own announcers and newscasters Live­assist Production ­ station uses syndicated programming but retains local announcers Modes of Radio Production Modes of Radio Production Semi­automation ­ station uses syndicated producer for majority of programming Turnkey automation ­ station is fully automated Voice tracking ­ computer automation makes it possible to program more than one station with same personnel Creating the Radio Format Creating the Radio Format Format ­ the overall sound and image of the radio station Includes station’s approach to talk, music, promotion, ads community relations, personalities, etc Creating the Radio Format Creating the Radio Format Keys to successful format To identify and serve a predetermined set of listeners To serve those listeners better than the competition Creating the Radio Format Creating the Radio Format Keys to successful format To reward listeners both on and off the air, make them consistent customers for the products and services advertised on the station Developing the Music Format Developing the Music Format The “Format Hole” The “Format Hole” Programming Strategies Do a better job at a specific format than the competition Develop a niche that will deliver a large enough audience to attract advertising revenue to the station The “Format Hole” The “Format Hole” Internal Factors Station ownership, dial location, power, technical facilities, management philosophy External Factors Geography, population characteristics Audience Analysis Audience Analysis Goal of radio programming ­ attract and maintain an audience Audience Analysis Audience Analysis Target Audience ­ the primary group sought by the station is defined by Demographics ­ age, education, racial/ethnic background, sex Psychographics ­ attitudes, beliefs and lifestyles Listener Demographics Listener Demographics Demographic categories ­ age breakouts (e.g. 18­24, 18­34, 18­49) Ideal Target Group ­ women, mid­30s Listener Psychographics Listener Psychographics Current research rage ­ measures qualitative research (values and lifestyles of listeners) Attempts to understand Attitudes Beliefs Leisure pursuits Political interests Radio Listening Throughout the Radio Listening Throughout the Day Radio Dayparts Radio Dayparts Morning Drive 6­10 A.M. ­ most important time Evening Drive 3­7 P.M. ­ second most important time Daytime ­ 10 A.M. ­ 3 P.M. ­ about one in five people listen Radio Dayparts Radio Dayparts Evening and late night ­ after 7 P.M. ratings drop as people watch TV Weekend radio ­ Saturday late morning and early afternoon are most important The Hot Clock The Hot Clock The “format wheel” ­ looks like the face of a clock Used to plan and execute the station’s sound Shows where music, commercials, news, occur within the program schedule Stations may use different clocks for different dayparts Hot Clock for a Country Station Hot Clock for a Country Station Radio Programming Terminology Radio Programming Terminology Three main types of information on hot clock: Commercial time positions Promotional position Programming ­ music and news/talk segments Radio Programming Terminology Radio Programming Terminology Clutter ­ when too many commercials have been placed on the format commercials per hour most stations program between 8 and 18 minutes of Radio Programming Terminology Radio Programming Terminology Spot sets ­ the commercial and promotional segments of the hot clock Subcategories of musical segments Current hits ­ given most airplay Gold ­ oldies Recurrent ­ recent hits still popular Format Evaluation Format Evaluation Playlist ­ stations publish list of songs played on specific formats ­ used by major record labels to gauge what gets airplay Tip Sheets ­ Billboard, Radio and Records Format Evaluation Format Evaluation Call­ins ­ requests to station are logged in Call­outs ­ ‘hooks’ are played over the phone Format Evaluation Format Evaluation Auditorium tests ­ 200+ song hooks test with large group Focus group study ­ in­depth interviews about musical preferences News/Talk and Sports Formatting News/Talk and Sports Formatting Talk formats are as complex as music formats Four common programming elements News Talk Business Sports News/Talk and Sports Formatting News/Talk and Sports Formatting Format wheel ­ shows various program segments All News ­ cyclical format News/ Talk ­ news segments mixed with talk segments Hot Clock for an All­News Station Hot Clock for an All­News Station Top 5 Syndicated Talk Shows Top 5 Syndicated Talk Shows Quick Facts Quick Facts Cost per episode of Seinfeld in cable syndication: $1 million Number of new program ideas pitched to TV networks each year: 5,000 Number of successful new TV series each year: 1­3 (average) TV News Today TV News Today “Happy Talk”: glamorous anchor­ journalists sometimes lack real journalism skills News As Show Biz All News, All The Time: Creation of C­ Span, CNN, Fox News Channel and MSNBC TV News Today News­on­demand: for sports, weather and news junkies needing up­to­the­minute scores, temperatures and stories TV News Today Global News Explosion: Pushed by Cable TV stations Crumbling Credibility? Issues in Crumbling Credibility? Issues in TV News “Tabloid” journalism: TV news may be losing some respect as an information source OJ Simpson case JonBenet Ramsay case Trial of Michael Jackson Decline of News Credibility since Decline of News Credibility since 1996 TV Entertainment Programming TV Entertainment Programming Network Programming: programs created and distributed by the major networks; Lost; Grey’s Anatomy TV Entertainment Programming TV Entertainment Programming Cable Programming: works differently ­ no affiliates and programs ­ go right to the cable franchises; The Sopranos and SpongeBob TV Entertainment Programming TV Entertainment Programming Syndication: programming sold by distribution companies to local TV stations and cable services; “off­network” and “first­ run”: Everybody Loves Raymond, Seinfeld versus Wheel of Fortune TV Entertainment Programming TV Entertainment Programming Local­origination: programs produced by local TV and cable for their own communities Network Television: The Big Four Network Television: The Big Four Plus Three CBS, NBC, ABC & FOX: each have about 200 affiliates Newer networks launch with about 100 affiliates Affiliations: stations that receive network programs in return for broadcasting that show Network Television: The Big Four Network Television: The Big Four Plus Three Programs that are carried are “cleared” Programs that are not carried are “preemptions” The Network Programming The Network Programming Process Financial Interest and Syndication Rules ­ (early 1970s) FCC attempts to stop the networks from monopolizing entertainment production banned from owning financial interest in dramatic programming The Network Programming The Network Programming Process Networks pay “licensing fees” to production companies Changes in fin­syn (1990s): networks allowed to own their own shows and sell them into syndication following network run Prime­Time Access Rule (PTAR) Prime­Time Access Rule (PTAR) Intended to encourage production by non­ Hollywood companies restricted the amount of time an affiliate must accept from the network, allowing the network control of no more than 3 of the 4 ‘prime time’ evening hours Prime­Time Access Rule (PTAR) Prime­Time Access Rule (PTAR) PTAR enabled independent stations to compete with network affiliates during “Prime Time” hours PTAR abandoned by FCC in 1996 under pressure The Network Programming The Network Programming Process Traditional Network Seasons: Fall season runs Sept – Oct “Second season” runs Jan – Feb The Network Programming The Network Programming Process Fox Network defies tradition ­ runs new episodes of popular shows in the summer, instead of showing re­runs; a strategy now followed by UPN, WB TV production dominated by a few conglomerates and major networks The Major Studios: Exerting The Major Studios: Exerting Major Influence Columbia­Tri­Star (owned by SONY Corp.) MCA­Universal (owned by French company, Vivendi­Universal) Twentieth Television/Fox Network (owned by Rupert Murdoch) The Major Studios: Exerting The Major Studios: Exerting Major Influence Warner Bros (owned by Time Warner) NBC Universal Paramount (part of CBS conglomerate) Disney Studios Pitching a program Pitching a program An idea or concept may be commissioned by the network, either formally or informally Treatment ­ short narrative may be offered Pitching a program Pitching a program Development ­ process where costing and legalities are worked out Step deal ­ arrangements for the program put together in specific order Pitching a program Pitching a program Network gets the right of first refusal Pilots ­ sample productions ordered up by networks Network Program Costs Network Program Costs Cost of a show is more important than any artistic or aesthetic considerations Network mini­series costs 5 million dollars per hour to produce but creates “event programming” with big ratings Network Program Costs Network Program Costs Draws viewers away from the newer networks and cable stations over a period of time “Reality” TV and news magazines cheapest to make at a cost of between .75 – 1.5 million dollars each Typical Costs for Network Typical Costs for Network Programs Cable Network Programming Cable Network Programming Theatrical Motion Pictures 80% of programming is theatrical releases, or “titles” on major pay­cable services Also backbone of USA, TBS, and Lifetime channels Cable Network Programming Cable Network Programming Theatrical Motion Pictures Film studios sign “exclusivity deals” with pay services Films are sold by distributors in “packages” – a series of film titles sold to cable networks and local stations Cable Network Programming Cable Network Programming Cable Original Movies Keeps cable attractive despite competition from video stores & other sources Stations produce original movies costing between $4 – 8 million Cable films address more sensitive issues than films made for broadcast films Cable Network Programming Cable Network Programming Cable Series Sign of cable’s programming maturity is the emergence of “high profile,” regularly scheduled series Cable saves costs by using smaller, independent production companies and by shooting on location Public Television Programming Public Television Programming PBS stations target an “underserved” audience ­ not the largest possible audience PBS charges membership dues to affiliates. In return, the affiliates share in the programming funded by CPB, foundations and individual contributions Public Television Programming Public Television Programming Produces 1500 hours of programming yearly PBS produces no programs itself, serves as a conduit to program producers Public Television Programming Public Television Programming Just over one in four programs comes from one of PBS’ member stations 7% are made via international producers and the remaining number are funded by consortiums, philanthropies, corporations, foundations and individual contributions PBS includes much comedic/satirical programming from the BBC and Independent Television (United Kingdom) The World of TV Syndication The World of TV Syndication The Syndication Market Two primary buyers or markets for syndication programming 1300 Local television stations Cable networks including USA Network, TNT, Lifetime The World of TV Syndication The World of TV Syndication Cable Syndication: The largest buyers of syndicated programming Barter Syndication: Syndicators offer their programs to stations for free or at reduced cost in return for airtime The World of TV Syndication The World of TV Syndication Local Television Stations Emphasize their own programming with an eye on “Diversity” news, sitcoms, dramas, music, sports Local Cable Stations Focus on local programming with news, sports, and online bulletin boards The World of TV Syndication The World of TV Syndication The Syndication Bazaar National Association of Television Program Executives (N.A.P.T.E.) created in 1963 Annual convention ­ NAPTE plugs and showcases newly syndicated programs to local and international TV stations Types of Syndicated Types of Syndicated Programming Three types Movie Packages: films that have completed their theatrical run and whose video and cable releases are sold to stations Types of Syndicated Types of Syndicated Programming Three types Off­Net Syndication: Programming originally produced for one of the major networks; 100 episodes is the magic number: Seinfeld, Everybody Loves Raymond, The Simpsons Types of Syndicated Types of Syndicated Programming Three types First­Run: Programming developed specifically for syndication, like game shows, talk shows and action series Off­Network Syndication Off­Network Syndication Episodes of programs formerly “licensed” to one of the major networks­­now leased (in reruns) to individual stations or cable networks Network Off­Network Syndication Off­Network Syndication Vital importance to rights­holder: makes $$$ again & again & again.... “Friends” will earn over $1 billion in syndication Off­Network Syndication Off­Network Syndication Vital importance to rights­holder: makes $$$ again & again & again.... A & E paid $155,000 per episode for Law & Order TNT will pay $250,000 per episode for those…and $800,000 for episodes not shown on A & E Off­Network Syndication Off­Network Syndication Must have sufficient episodes (75­100) for strip Syndication can begin before network run is ended Network Run Syndicated Run Paying for Syndicated Paying for Syndicated Programs Cash Barter: Syndicator keeps some or all of the commercial time Cash/Barter Barter Barter Syndication Pro­barter argument: Lowers cost of programs to station Anti­barter arguments: Station loses control of commercial inventory Examples of Off­Network & First Run Examples of Off­Network & First Run Programming Visit the following websites Warner Brothers Universal Paramount Programming Programming Strategies Programming Programming Strategies Goal: Maximizing Audience Flow Flow: The audience attracted to a program will watch other programs before and after it Program Program Strategies Techniques to maximize viewership Good programmers may decide to target a different audience than the one that the competing station/network is trying to attract (Counter Programming) ESPN’s 11pm Sportscenter starts same time as local news Program Program Strategies Techniques to maximize viewership Challenge Programming TV network or station directly challenges with the same type of program or goes after the same demographic with a different program with similar audience appeal Oprah vs. Jerry Springer Program Program Strategies Strip : Presented at the same time each day of the week Builds viewer loyalty Builds viewer habit Program Program Strategies Block : Programs similar in appeal follow one another Program Program Strategies Strong Lead­in: Major program at start of day­part Program Program Strategies Hammock: Putting a weak or unproven program between two successful ones Program Program Strategies Tentpoling : Putting a strong program between two weak ones Program Program Strategies Front­loading: Major episode, feature film, early in season Program Program Strategies Cross­over: Character from one program appears on other program Program Program Strategies Spin­off: Taking popular characters from one show and give them their own show Program Program Strategies Seamless Programming : One program ends and the next begins without interruption Program Program Strategies Bridging: Running five minutes longer than the usual half hour or hour Program Program Strategies Repurposing : Re­run of broadcast content on a cable network shortly after it airs originally on network affiliate stations. Program Program Strategies Disrupting Audience Flow Disrupting Disrupting Audience Flow Counterprogramming: Seeking audiences not being served by other programs in a time period By Genre By Demographic Niche By Program Launch Date Disrupting Disrupting Audience Flow Stunting: Moving programs around the schedule, special guest stars, etc. Why Programs are Cancelled Why Programs are Low Ratings Wrong Demographics Declining Ratings Trends: Emergence of Reality Trends: Emergence of Reality Television Attractiveness for networks compared to other genres of programs Hits garner high­ratings, advertising rates American idol $620,000 30­second spot/30 million viewers Trends: Emergence of Reality Trends: Emergence of Reality Television Costs in comparison to other types of primetime programming Repeat ratings lower than other types of dramas or comedies Production costs have risen as some on­ location shows get more complex (e.g. Amazing Race) However most reality shows cheap to produce ­­­ avg. $1.5 million per episode (2006) Trends: Serials as another emerging Trends: Serials as another emerging Format Shows like Lost captivate audience from week­to­week Attractiveness for primetime network ratings Costs in comparison to other types of programs Compare number of scenes in a drama (50) to a show like Prison Break (88) Pilot for Lost cost more than $10 million to produce Ensemble casts more expensive Repeat ratings lower than other types of dramas or comedies Trends: Primetime Network Series & Trends: Primetime Network Series & Video on Demand Primetime broadcast network shows available for downloads (iPod) and Video on Demand to Cable, DBS & Cellphones Some shows have had regular ratings boosted by video iPod sales (e.g. The Office) especially among younger viewers ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2011 for the course RTV 3007 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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