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Unformatted text preview: Race: Myth and Reality Race: Myth 1 – Idea that Any Race is Superior All “Races” have variations Myth 2 – Idea that Any “Race” is Pure Human Characteristics Flow Endlessly Human Together Together “Race is real in its consequences” Race and Ethnicity Race Race is primarily a socially constructed category based on physical criteria. physical An ethnic group is a social category An ethnic of people who share a common culture. culture. Ethnic Groups Ethnic
Ethnicity Refers to Cultural Characteristics 1. Possesses characteristics regarded as Possesses different from the dominant group (race, ethnicity, sexual preference, age, religion.) ethnicity, 2. Suffers prejudice and discrimination by the Suffers dominant group. dominant 3. Membership is ascribed rather than achieved. 4. Members feel a sense of group solidarity. Jews - how does race also play a role? http://www.jewfaq.org/judaism.htm Stereotypes Stereotypes Reinforce prejudices and cause them to Reinforce persist in society. Racial and gender stereotypes receive Racial ongoing support in the media. ongoing Justify the oppression of groups based Justify on race, ethnicity and gender. on The Salience Principle The States that we categorize people on the basis States of what appears initially prominent and salient about them. about Skin color, gender, and age are salient Skin characteristics. characteristics. What becomes salient is culturally determined. In other cultures, religion may be far more In salient than skin color. salient Minority and Dominant Groups Minority Minority Group – People Singled Out for Unequal Minority Treatment, and have a sense of Collective Discrimination Discrimination Can Be Racial or Ethnic Can Usually ascribed status Not Necessarily Numerical Minority Minority and Dominant Groups Minority Dominant Group – Group with Most… Power Privileges Highest Social Status Dominant Group Does the Discriminating Constructing Racial-Ethnic Identity Constructing Relative Size Power Appearance Discrimination Constructing means that we do the work Constructing to make it real to A Sense of Ethnicity Source: Henslin. Based on Doane 1997. Prejudice, Discrimination and Racism Prejudice, Prejudice is an attitude involving prejudgment on the basis of race or ethnicity. Discrimination is actual behavior involving unequal treatment. Racism involves both attitude and behavior, discrimination based on race. behavior, Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice Learning Prejudice Prejudice for Own Group vs. Out Group Internalizing Dominant Norms Through media- A girl like me https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/ http://www.mediathatmattersfest.org/6/a_girl_like_ Forms of Racism Forms Traditional - Obvious, overt racism, such as Traditional physical assaults, from beatings to lynchings physical Aversive - subtle, covert and not obvious. Laissez-faire - also called symbolic racism. Colorblind - Refusing to perceive any differences between racial groups. between Institutional - The negative treatment and oppression of one racial or ethnic group by society’s existing institutions based on the presumed inferiority of the oppressed group. presumed Elements of Laissez-faire Racism Racism
1. Persistent negative stereotyping of minorities, Persistent particularly Black Americans, especially in the media. media. 2. Tendency to blame Blacks for the gap Tendency between Blacks and Whites in socioeconomic standing, occupational achievement, and educational achievement. 3. Resistance to policy efforts that address 3. Resistance racially oppressive social conditions and practices. Intersectional perspective Intersectional
Patricia Hill Collins The intersection of race, class and The gender gender No ranking of oppression What can you do? Analyze your own position Coalitions among common causes Build empathy Debunking Society’s Myths Debunking Myth: The primary cause of racial inequality in the The United States is the persistence of prejudice. United Sociological perspective: Prejudice is one dimension of racial Prejudice problems in the United States, but institutional racism can flourish even while prejudice is on the decline. prejudice Individual and Institutional Discrimination Discrimination Home Mortgages and Car Loans Health Care Who get preventative care and at Who what stage what Race-Ethnicity and Mortgages: An Example of Institutional Discrimination Source: By the author. Based on Thomas 1991. Massey and Lundy 1998 Massey Conducted a study on apartment rentals Conducted in Philadelphia in Used telephone inquiries using SAE, BAE, and BE Race…. but also gender and class Findings: Cloaked Discrimination in Apartment Rentals Source: Massey and Lundy 2001. Theories of Prejudice Theories
Psychological Perspectives Frustration and Scapegoats Cannot lash out at real cause of stress, so find Cannot a scapegoat to blame (often minorities) scapegoat The Authoritarian Personality Insecure conformists, tend to categorize Insecure people, no ambiguity people, Contact Theory Contact
Interactions will reduce prejudice if 3 Interactions conditions are met: 1. Contact is between individuals of equal 1. Contact status. status. 2. Contact is sustained. 3. Participants agree upon social norms Participants favoring equality. favoring Theories of Prejudice Theories
Sociological Perspectives Functionalism Prejudice can be manipulated by social environment, Prejudice can create in-group solidarity can Conflict Theory Who benefits from a reserve labor force and split-labor Who market. market. Symbolic Interactionism Labels Create Prejudice Self-Fulfilling Prophecy- a lazy people do not deserve Self-Fulfilling good jobs good History and the 2008 election History McCain concession speech http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=kjQYKoc4N7c v=kjQYKoc4N7c Obama Acceptance speech http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Jll5baCAaQU 13:20 Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States the
Native Americans Diversity of Groups From Treaties to Genocide and Population From Transfer From a population of between 1-10 million pre From 1492 …..to 300,000 in 1850 1492 The Invisible Minority and Self-Determination Highest poverty rate of all minorities and 50% Highest unemployment among males. Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States the African-Americans the racial category of "black" evolved with the the consolidation of racial slavery The Struggle for Civil Rights Rising Expectations and Civil Strife Civil rights act, but also Voting rights act Continued Gains and continued problems Political, educational and economic gains… Political, but there is a long way to go but No Black US senators, but should be 12 if based No on population percentage on Income inequality Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States the
Latinos/Hispanics – the meaning of a Latinos/Hispanics name name Numbers, Origins, Location – Numbers, Mexican American War and the1848 border change border Spanish Language Diversity Comparative Conditions Geographical Origin of U.S. Latinos Source: By the author. Based on Statistical Abstract 2005: Table 40. Chinese Chinese 1865-1868, thousands of Chinese 1865-1868, laborers worked for the Central Pacific railroad. In 1882, the Chinese exclusion act In banned immigration of laborers and intermarriage. intermarriage. Hostility and exclusion resulted in the Hostility creation of Chinatowns. creation Japanese Japanese Immigration of the first generation (Issei) took Immigration place between 1890 and 1924. place In 1924, passage of the Japanese In immigration act forbade further immigration. The 2nd generation (Nisei) became better educated and assimilated, while 3rd (Sansei) educated met with discrimination. During WWII, Japanese Americans were During forced into relocation camps. forced In 1987, legislation was passed awarding In $20,000 to each relocated person and offering an apology an Middle Easterners Middle Immigrants from Middle Eastern Immigrants countries such as Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, and Iran began arriving in the mid-1970s. Like other immigrants, many experienced Like downward mobility and formed their own ethnic enclaves. ethnic Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States the
European Americans Nation’s Founders Included Only Nation’s Those From England (WASPs) Those The “White” race to distinguish The from… from… Other “Inferior” Europeans: Italians, Other Irish, Jews, etc. Irish, Looking Towards the Future Looking The Immigration Debate Much more muted this year Affirmative Action Race as a factor vs. quotas The case in Florida, at UF In 2002 Black Enrollments at the University of Florida at Gainesville Rose 43 Percent, But They Are Still 21 Percent Lower Than Was the Case in 2000 When Race-Sensitive Admissions Were in Place
There was a 45% drop in the first year without AA. UF instituted mentoring relationships with 3 primarily African American high schools, and set up a scholarship for the top 20% of those HS graduates. UF also expanded its recruiting, and increased need-based scholarships. Despite the increase in enrollment, African American enrollment in 2002 was still 21% lower than when AA was in place. 2007: 879 enrolled, 13.75% of first year students Looking Towards the Future Looking The Immigration Debate Much more muted this year Affirmative Action Race as a factor vs. quotas The case in Florida, at UF Towards a Numerical change- will this make a Towards difference? difference? What influence did it have on this election? Exit poll data: http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2008/results/polls/#USP00p1 PBS video: A class divided PBS Please base your DQ on this http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sho Finish watching on your own. ...
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- Fall '08