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Sociology Powerpoint - Politics Matthew Oliphant Leah...

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Unformatted text preview: Politics Matthew Oliphant Leah Cicero Julian Aris Michael Blomgren The State Basic Information Definition: organized system of power and authority in society. Has a central role in shaping class, race, – Ex. Government and legal system (courts, prison etc), police, military and gender relations in a society. Focuses on three main relationships: State­Institution, State­Citizen, State­ State State Relationships State­Institution State­Citizen State­State – The State is made up of numerous institutions which work together to regulate and guide society. – Give and take relationship between the State and the people. – States from all around the world work together in organizations and unions for global good. Power­ the ability of one person or a Power and Authority Within the State group of people to exercise influence and control over others. – Two Types: Legitimate Power and Coercive Power Authority­ the power perceived by others as legitimate. – Ex. U.S. President The Three Types of Authority Theorized by German Sociologist Max Weber Traditional Authority – Stems from long established patterns of power in society. Charismatic Authority Rational­legal Authority – Stems from the personal appeal of a certain leader. – Stems from rules and regulations, laws, procedures, or codes of conduct. – Leads to the formation of bureaucracies. Theories of Power Pluralist Model Basic Information Power comes from representation of diverse interests of different groups in society Originates in functionalist theory In Practice Assumes that in democratic societies the government balances with varied interests of groups within the society Interest groups and their influence – http://www.votesmart.org/issue_group.php (Civil Liberties) State seen as benign and representative, no one group as dominant Political action committees – http://www.x­ppac.org/ The Power Elite Model Dominant or ruling class controls institutions in society, the state is an instrument for exercising power Power elite: true power comes from the economy, the government, and the military Interlocking directorates: the same people sit on the board of directors for numerous corporations The state is a part of the structure of domination in society The Autonomous State Model Interprets the state as its own major constituent The state has interests of its own, independent of public etc. Tendency of the state to grow over time Massive, elaborate bureaucracy – – http://www.congress.org/congressorg/directory/committees.tt U.S. Committees Listing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mEJL2Uuv­oQ (1­2:30) How a bill becomes a law Feminist Theories of the State Men have the most important power in society State institutions as patriarchical Institutions are structured by values and systems that are culturally masculine: hierarchical relationships, aggression, and force Government: Power and Politics in a Diverse Society Basic Information The government is one of several institutions that make up the state. Democracy ­ government is representative of society (ideally). – Reality ­ not really. Unequal voting representation Unequal elected officials Unequal attention given – Represents populations and makes rules to govern society. – Poor/working classes are under­represented. US ­ one of lowest voter turnouts (around Diverse Patterns of Political Participation 50%) Main factors that determine who votes – Age Older people vote more Odd, because young people say voting is important Cynicism – Income – Education Diverse Voting Habits Ethnicity/race affect both chances of being elected and who you vote for (often outweighs other factors in voting) Blacks vote less African Americans and Latinos tend to vote Democratic Cubans have tended to vote Republican Gender ­ women more likely to be liberal/Democratic than men – Part of poor/working class ­ habitually votes less – Also because of mistrust of political system. Political Power: Who’s In Charge Congress PACs & wealthy individuals contribute $$ ­> Campaigns cost lots of $$ ­> Have to appeal to the wealthy to have a successful campaign. – White, well­educated, upper/middle class, men, Anglo­Saxon Protestant heritage. – Many millionaires – 1/3 lawyers, 1/3 business and banking, 1/3 professionals (virtually no blue collar) – This has lead to low general confidence levels in Congress (30%) and Supreme Court (50%). Women & Minorities in Government Senate Women (2007 Nancy Pelosi) House (435) 70 40 23 3 1 40 African Americans 1 Latinos/as Asians Native Americans 2 2 0 As a basis for comparison: Women are 51% of population, Blacks 13%, and Hispanics 13% Explanations Prejudice (duh) Religious – 1960 ­ Kennedy 1st Catholic president – 2000 ­ Joseph Leiberman ­ 1st Jew on major national ticket. – 1969 ­ 53% of people said they would vote for a woman. – Today ­ 92% – But 42% still also say that they think a man would make a better president! – Voting Prejudices – CNN poll Gender and race also The Military Race and the Military Representation of women and minorities has changed. Examples of advertisements – Old image of a white man in camo – Newer images of a black man in blues – Or a woman wearing a fighter helmet in a cockpit http://www.goarmy.com/ African Americans have served in military almost since its beginnings The Marines desegregated in 1942, the forces in 1948 – Promoted interracial relationships and increased awareness of equal rights – Past claim that side­by­side would destroy morale – Currently 34% of military personnel are minorities (20% African American, 8% Hispanic, 6% Other) For citizens with limited opportunities, the military seems to promise an educational and economic boost There is equal pay among ranks, but overrepresentation of minorities in lower ranking positions With similar backgrounds, minority groups in the military earn $3000­$5000 more than civilian peers do Women in the Military Military academies did not open their enrollment to women until 1976 – Citadel and Shannon Faulkner – Other examples of mistreatment 1996 Supreme Court ruling that women cannot be excluded from state supported military schools Marginalization of women in military based on… All time high of women in the military – Popular conviction that women should not serve in combat – Traditional belief of men as protectors and women as dependents (Make up 18% of Air Force, 15% Army, 13% Navy, and 6% Marines) Minority women are overrepresented, relative to percentage in general population Military wives and the effects of their husbands’ employment – Frequent relocation = less competitive in the job market – Lower labor force participation – Earn less at the same education level – Military base presence suppresses employment for ALL women in the general area Gays and Lesbians in the Military Don’t ask, don’t tell BUT… – If reveal homosexuality, can be expelled – Cannot seek on and fire – Still support for ban on gays in the military based on “hurting soldiers’ morale” – Homophobia as a pervasive part of the military culture What Do You Know? 1. TRUE OR FALSE… Legitimate power is taken by force while coercive power is seen as justified. 2. In the Pluralist model… A. There is more than one government. B. Interest groups can influence policy decisions. C. Interest groups can implement policy through laws. D. The government is made of an elite group that makes all the policy decisions. 3. Which of the following would be the most and which the least likely to get elected? A. An African American B. A Woman C. An Atheist D. A Hispanic 4. Women admitted into military academies in the past were… A. Welcomed by their male peers. B. Shunned and harassed by their male peers. C. Initially given large scholarships. D. Admitted until Shannon Faulkner left due to physical exhaustion. ...
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