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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 19:23 Risk Factors: variables correlated with an abnormal outcome Etiology: factors that are related to the development of a particular disorder Necessary Cause: a condition that must exist for a disorder to occur • Ex: General paresis cannot develop unless a person has contracted syphilis o Syphilis is the necessary cause for general paresis Sufficient cause: a condition that guarantees the occurrence of a disorder • Ex: hopelessness is a sufficient cause of depression o If X occurs, then Y will also occur Contributory Causes: increases the probability of a disorder developing but is neither necessary nor sufficient for the disorder to occur • If X occurs then the probability of Y occurring increases o Ex: parental rejection could increase the probability that a child will later have difficulty in handling close personal relationships Distal causal factors: causal factors occurring relatively early in life may not show their effects for many years • Ex: loss of a parent early in life or having abusive parents may cause predisposing a person to depression or antisocial behaviors later in life Proximal causal factors: causal factors operate shortly before the occurrence of the symptoms of a disorder • Ex: A crushing disappointment at school or work is a proximal causal factor that could leave to depression • Ex: damage to certain parts of the left hemisphere of the brain could lead to depression Reinforcing contributory Cause: a condition that tends to maintain maladaptive behavior that is already occurring. • Ex: extra attention and sympathy from unwanted responsibility that may come when a person is ill could unintentionally discourage recovery Causal Pattern: more than one causal factor is involved • Conditions A, B, C lead to condition Y. • Have difficulty distinguishing between what is cause and what is effect o Effect can serve as feedback that can in turn influence the causes Diathesis-stress models: (graphs on page 60) • Diathesis (vulnerability): predisposition toward developing a disorder o Relatively distal necessary or contributory cause, generally not sufficient to cause the disorder • Stressor: a more proximal undesirable event or situation, which may also be contributory or necessary but is generally not sufficient by itself to cause the disorder except in someone with diathesis • Diathesis and Stressor together cause disorder • Stress: the response or experience of an individual to demands that he or she perceives as taxing or exceeding his or her personal resources • Additive model: how a diathesis and stress combine to produce a disorder...
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2011 for the course PSYCH 270 taught by Professor Chang during the Fall '07 term at University of Michigan.
- Fall '07
- Abnormal Psychology