chapter 3 psych 270 - Chapter3 19:23 RiskFactors: Etiology:...

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Chapter 3 19:23 Risk Factors: variables correlated with an abnormal outcome Etiology: factors that are related to the development of a particular disorder  Necessary Cause: a condition that must exist for a disorder to occur Ex: General paresis cannot develop unless a person has contracted syphilis o Syphilis is the necessary cause for general paresis Sufficient cause: a condition that guarantees the occurrence of a disorder  Ex: hopelessness is a sufficient cause of depression  o If X occurs, then Y will also occur Contributory Causes: increases the probability of a disorder developing but is  neither necessary nor sufficient for the disorder to occur If X occurs then the probability of Y occurring increases  o Ex: parental rejection could increase the probability that a child will later  have difficulty in handling close personal relationships Distal causal factors: causal factors occurring relatively early in life may not show  their effects for many years Ex: loss of a parent early in life or having abusive parents may cause  predisposing a person to depression or antisocial behaviors later in life  Proximal causal factors: causal factors operate shortly before the occurrence of  the symptoms of a disorder  Ex: A crushing disappointment at school or work is a proximal causal factor  that could leave to depression Ex: damage to certain parts of the left hemisphere of the brain could lead to  depression Reinforcing contributory Cause: a condition that tends to maintain maladaptive  behavior that is already occurring. Ex: extra attention and sympathy from unwanted responsibility that may come  when a person is ill could unintentionally discourage recovery  Causal Pattern: more than one causal factor is involved Conditions A, B, C lead to condition Y.  
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Have difficulty distinguishing between what is cause and what is effect o Effect can serve as feedback that can in turn influence the causes Diathesis-stress models:  (graphs on page 60) Diathesis (vulnerability): predisposition toward developing a disorder o Relatively distal necessary or contributory cause, generally not sufficient  to cause the disorder  Stressor: a more proximal undesirable event or situation, which may also be  contributory or necessary but is generally not sufficient by itself to cause the  disorder except in someone with diathesis Diathesis and Stressor together cause disorder Stress: the response or experience of an individual to demands that he or she  perceives as taxing or exceeding his or her personal resources 
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