Test 2 - Test 2 Lecture Notes 19:07 Research Methods Basic...

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Unformatted text preview: Test 2 Lecture Notes 19:07 Research Methods Basic Characteristics of the Scientific Method Skeptical Attitude: question everything o Behavior is complex no simple answers o Scientists make mistakes like everyone Objective o Goals: describe, predict, control, and understand o Findings must be valid Internal validity: low when results are confounded External validity: low when results cannot be generalized Research Process o Need to develop a testable hypothesis: a tentative explanation about how or why something happens Ex: Full moon is positively associated with violent behaviors o Need to operationalize your variables Ex: violent behaviors=number of homicides o Distinguishing variables in a hypothesis Ex: if X, then Y. If this, then that X independent variable Y dependent variable Use of random assignment to reduce confounding in experiments o Considering proximal versus distal factors o Reducing unwanted effects Experimenter effects (self-fulfilling prophecy) You get what you look for I know that drug X will make you feel better placebo group: give one group a sugar pill Use double-blind: neither the experiments nor the participant knows who is in what condition o Statistical Inference Null hypothesis: independent variable has no influence on the dependent variable (Ho) Statistical significance: typically, when the probability of a given finding is less than 5 out of a 100 due to chance (p<.05) Statistical significance vs. clinical significance Research Designs Case Study o Focus is on idiographic (unique) versus nomethetic (universal) information o Key value to obtain a rich description of a single person o Can be used as a powerful counterexample to presumed universal theories Case of 13 year old Genie Correlational Research o Focus is on the relations between two or more variables o Two attributes of all correlation coefficients: Magnitude (range from 0.0 to 1.0) Direction (+ or ) o Third- variable problem: when another factor is involved Ex: People of color show greater signs of mental illness Ex: low socioeconomic status o Correlation does not necessarily imply causation Link between violent TV programs and aggressive behavior Epidemiology: study of the frequency and distribution of a given disorder o Incidence: number of new cases of a given disorder over a given period of time o Prevalence: percent of population with a given disorder at a particular time Experimental Designs (getting at Causality) o Problems conducting true experiments o Analogue studies (including animal models)...
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Test 2 - Test 2 Lecture Notes 19:07 Research Methods Basic...

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