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Test 3 - Test3 19:42...

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Test 3 19:42 Stress and Physical Disorders Psychophysiological (or psychosomatic) Disorder: true physical illness  influenced by psychological factors Mind and Body: Brief Historical Perspective Same, Different, and Same again o Hippocrates: emotions such as anxiety can exacerbate sickness o Galen: influence of personality (melancholic) and illness o Descartes: “I think, therefore I am” Mind-body dualism o Modern view: mind and body are one Psychological stress Various definitions of stress o Stress as a consequence of a stressor (stimulus) Major life event (death of a loved one, divorce) Chronic hassles (and uplifts) Excessive or multiple work load (“June Bug Epidemic) Cultural Differences in Occupational Stress o Job Burnout (US): typically present among physicians,  nurses, and other medical personal who work with sick and  dying people, and is marked by 3 components Emotional exhaustion Depersonalization of client A reduced sense of accomplishment in one’s job
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o Karoshi (Japan): a condition associated with extreme work  overload in Japan, sometimes resulting in death Stress=change in major life experiences Transitional stress: associated with conflict across important  developmental periods Acculturative stress: associated with the conflict assimilating or  maintaining one’s racial or ethnic identity (confounded with low  SES) o Death among Southeast Asia (Hmong) refugees: an  example of sudden death syndrome or biological deficiency? Stress=stimulus  x  appraisal (Lazarus and Folkman) basic stimulus  - response (S-R) model Stimulus   response   adjustment Primary and secondary appraisal  o Primary Is it a threat to my well being? Yes/no o Secondary Do I have the resource to deal with that situation? If no  then stress What determines Stress o Stimulus specificity Different stressors   different responses (getting a 100 on your exam   joy; getting a 0 on the exam   sadness) Individual response specificity Unique response style of the individual, which may be due to  learning and/or biological factors (For happy-go-lucky Fred, failing  to turn in a term paper on time, forgetting his wallet on the bus,  receiving a 0 on his exam and being fired form his new job were all  just minor blemishes to his otherwise always perfect life) Personality characteristics (optimism, hardiness, self-esteem) Langer and Rodin’s study: personal control and mortality rates o Old folks control their day and others don’t  Individual  x  stimulus specificity
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The real world is a combination of the two  How does stress influence illness?
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