290ch6 - Chapter 6: Behaviorist and learning Aspects of...

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Chapter 6: Behaviorist and learning Aspects of Personality Partial reinforcement: large, unpredictable reward (ex. person wins the lotto and gives the cab drive a 100 dollar tip because of his good mood) Some studies show that it is more powerful than continuous reinforcement Behaviorists reject many other psychological approaches such as internal traits, tendencies, defenses, and motivations John Locke (1632-1704) Viewed the infant as a blank slate Influence of experience and the situation Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Classical Conditioning: the concept that after the repeated pairing of an unconditioned stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response and a neutral stimulus, the previously neutral stimulus can come to elicit the same response as the unconditioned stimulus Presented food (US), which causes salivation in dogs (UR) to a hungry dog as the same time pairing it with something that normally did not cause salivation, such as a bell (NS). Found that if he paired the food and bell enough, eventually just the bell elicited salivation the bell became the (CS) and the salivation because the (CR) Generalization: the tendency for similar stimuli to evoke the same response Discrimination: the concept that a conditioned response will not occur for all possible stimuli, indicating that an animal can learn to tell the diff. between different stimuli Behavioral Reaction patterns Neutral stimuli associated with positive occurrence become “likes” Neutral stimuli associated with negative occurrence become “dislikes” Extinction: The process by which the frequency of the organism’s producing a response gradually decreases when the response behavior is no longer followed by the reinforcement Classical conditioning is more complicated than Pavlov thought because each species and each individual has certain tendencies that facilitate or impair certain learning (ex. humans do better with visual cues than smells
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Watson’s Behaviorism Limitation of introspection Behaviorism: the learning approach to psychology introduced by John Watson that emphasizes the study of observable behavior Watson realizes that he prefers using animals over humans Wrote book with Rosalie Rayner called Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist Little Albert (11 months old) Condition Albert to fear a rat that did not initially provoke fear Generalization was demonstrated when little Albert’s fear was applied to furry objects (rabbit, dog, fur coat) Systematic Desensitization: gradually extinguishing a phobia by causing the feared
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290ch6 - Chapter 6: Behaviorist and learning Aspects of...

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