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Exam 5 Study Guide - Types of Atoms Type of Bond...

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Types of Atoms Type of Bond Characteristic of Bond Metal and nonmetal Ionic Electrons transferred Nonmetal and nonmetal Covalent Electrons shared Metal and metal Metallic Electrons pooled Octet Rule ~ Atoms often gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valance electrons (4 pairs) to achieve the same number of electrons as the noble gas closet to them in periodic table. Exceptions: 1. Odd-electron species, molecules or ions with an odd number of electrons 2. Incomplete octets, molecules or ions with fewer than eight electrons around an atom 3. Expanded octets, molecules or ions with more than eight electrons around an atom Lattice Energies The Born-Haber Cycle ΔH° f = -411 kJ/mol 1. Atomisation enthalpy of lithium Na(s) → Na(g) = +108 kJ 2. Ionisation enthalpy of lithium ½Cl 2 (g) → Cl(g) = +122kJ 3. Atomisation enthalpy of fluorine Na(g) → Na + (g) + e - = +496 kJ 4. Electron affinity of fluorine Cl(g) + e - → Cl - (g) = -349 kJ 5. Lattice enthalpy Na + (g) + Cl - (g) → NaCl(s) = -411 kJ – (+108 kJ +122 kJ +496 kJ -349 kJ) = -788kJ Lattice energies become less exothermic (less negative) with increasing ionic radius.
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