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psych--week 2 - Module 3 Research Strategies How...

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Module 3 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions
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Scientific Method Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors and events Hypotheses: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory Research and Observations: gathering info and recording results 2
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Scientific Method (Continued) 3
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Scientific Method (Continued) Operational Definition: statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables Examples: Human intelligence operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures” Generosity operationally defined as “money contributed” Replication (repeating studies): repeating a research study with different participants and situations to see whether the basic finding can be generalized 4
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Types of Research Descriptive Methods Case Study Survey Naturalistic Observation Correlation Experiments 5
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Descriptive Methods: Case Studies Case Study: one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles Sample Research Question: Does my client have a problem with alcohol abuse? Can a chimp learn language?
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Descriptive Methods: Surveys Survey: uses questionnaires or interviews to assess self-reported attitudes and behaviors of a particular group Sample Research Question: Are workers satisfied with their jobs? Do people believe there’s too much violence on television?
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Surveys Continued Wording Effects Should cigarette ads and pornography be disallowed on television? (versus “forbidden” or “censored”) “Aid to the needy” versus “welfare” Word change can change a person’s attitude or response towards something 8
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Surveys Continued Sample: the small group of participants, out of the total number available, that a researcher studies Population: the total group being studied, from which the sample is drawn Random Sampling: everyone in the population has an equal chance of participating Ensures a representative sample 9
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Methods of Research: Naturalistic Observation Naturalistic Observation: observing and recording behavior in a naturally occurring situation without interfering Sample Research Questions: What percentage of their time to college students spend online? Do people laugh more in social situations or alone?
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Methods of Research: Correlation Correlational Study: measures the relationship between two variables Sample Research Questions: Are ACT scores related to college GPA? How are self-esteem and depression related?
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Correlation Correlation coefficient Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = 0.37 + Correlation Coefficient: number that represents the relationship between two variables or sets of data
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(Correlation Continued) Positive Correlation: as the value of one increases, the value of the other increases E.g., r = +.7 for education and income
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