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Biology final study guide

Biology final study guide - ensory cells get light send...

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Crossing Over the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes prophase I of meiosis homologous chromosomes are closely paired all along their lengths Segments can be exchanged at one or more sites can produce a chromosome that contains a new combination of genetic info, genetic re a single crossover event can affect many genes. Translation Transfer RNA (tRNA) translates the three-letter codons of mRNA to the amino acids that make up proteins tRNA molecule must become bound to the appropriate amino acid and recognize the appropriate codon in the mRNA. At one end of the folded tRNA molecule is a specific triplet of bases called an anticodon. The three bases of the anticodon are com At the other end of the tRNA molecule is a site where a particular amino acid can attach consists of two parts or subunits, each of which is made up of proteins and a considerable amount of yet another kind of RNA, ribosomal RN ds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain. the "A" site, holds a tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain. sensory cells get light & send signals to brain which analyzes info & makes images sclera- The outer white surface of the eye; a tough layer of connective tissue Light enters eyes through a clear area of sclera- cornea , helps focus the light as it travels to the back of the eyeball. thin layer of mucus keeps sclera moist & free layer containing blood vessels that nourish eye, at front forms iris (color) Hole in lens- pupil . Muscles in the iris regulate size of the pupil & control light disk-shaped lens. Muscles attached to ligaments pull on the lens, changing its shape The lens focuses these images on the retina , the inner surface of the eye. Nearsightedness- wide, farsightedness- narrow, & astigmatism- lens mixes up light waves Cones - colors: blue, red, and green. Colorblindness results from a deficiency in cones Rods - sensitive to light, allow ppl to see objects in dim light, but only in gray Eardrum –vibrations Semicircular canals- balance Cochlea- hearing
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Assortments of Chromosomes How the chromosomes in each tetrads line up & separate at metaphase I is chanc the assortment of chromosomes that end up in the resulting cells occurs randomly Alison Lindsay Biology Final Review Ch. 9 1. How is cell division involved in growth and repair? New skin cells gradually move outward, replacing dead cells that have rubbed off. When skin is injured, additional cell reproduction helps heal the wound. growth—simply increasing in size from a baby to a child to an adult. 2. Compare asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction- some organisms reproduce by simple cell division, in which a single cell or group of cells each duplicates its genetic material and then splits into two new genetically identical cells.
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