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Ch.9, 10, and 12 - Alison Lindsay Science CH.9 10 and 12...

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Alison Lindsay 2/6/09 Science CH.9, 10, and 12 Genetics Genotype- the genetic makeup or combination of alleles Phenotype- observable trait Homozygous- two alleles that are the same Heterozygous- one dominant and a recessive allele Law of segregation- the two alleles separate during the formation of gametes, so that each gamete only carries one allele for each character. Mendel was contradicting the former thought and started the thought of Meitosis Law of independent assortment- the alleles for diff genes are sorted into gametes independently of others P, F1, F2 generation- the parent generation and the filial or child generation and the child generation of the F1 generation True-breeding- when you breed something so many times that it is homozygous and doesn’t have any trace of the other allele Hybrid- the offspring of two different homozygous organisms Dominate v. Recessive- when a genotype is heterozygous, the dominate allele is the phenotype the organism will inherit Monohybrid v. dihybrid cross- crossing organism with one or two different characters Test cross- breeds an individual of unknown genotype, but dominate phenotype with a homozygous recessive individual Codominant- when something is a heterozygote with both traits Intermediate Inheritance- an organism inherits a phenotype is intermediate between the phenotypes of the two homozygotes Sex-Linked- A trait that is located in a gene that is located on the none homologous part of the X chromosomes Lethal alleles- dominant- one= dead, recessive- two=dead, d- Huntington, Dwarfism R- system fibroism, etc Polygenic traits-traits controlled by multiple genes ex- height, eye color, etc.
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Multiple alleles- more than 2 alleles are present for the same trait. Ex- blood type Environmental influence- genes activated by environmental cues Gene Linkage-the tendency for alleles on one chromosome to be inherited together Chromosome Structure Histones-protein that DNA coils around Homologous chromosomes- the two chromosomes of each matching pair Tetrads- paired chromosomes or 4 chromatid Chromatids- half of the chromosome Centromere- the place where the chromatids touch Cell division Centrosome- the regions of cytoplasmic material the holds the centrioles Spindle- microtubule that guide the chromosomes Cytokinesis- divides the cytoplasm Prophase- first stage of mitosis, there are sister chromatid, nucleolus disappears, nuclear envelope breaks down, miotic spindle forms, and Chromatids attach to the microtubules Metaphase- Chromosomes gather in equator, centrioles on opposite sides Anaphase- chromatid separate and move to opposite poles Telophase-spindle disappears, nuclear envelope reforms, chromosomes recoil, nucleoli reappear Cell plate- cytokinesis for plants Cleavage- cytokinesis for animals Diploid-contain two sets of homologous sets of chromosomes haploid- cells with a single set of chromosomes Gamete- sex cells (X and Y)\ Somatic- body cell Zygote- a fertilized egg Cell cycle- orderly sequence of events for a cell to divide G1, S, and G2 phases- cell grows, DNA duplicates, cell prepares for cell division
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