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Oceans and coastlines ch16

Oceans and coastlines ch16 - 5oceanbasins Atlantic Pacific...

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Oceans are all connected So really just 1 big ocean! 5 ocean basins Atlantic Pacific Indian Arctic Antarctic--Meeting of currents; the  Antarctic Convergence.  Portions of the 4 ocean  basins below 50 degrees south latitude 
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Fig. 16.1, p.400
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Salinity – total amount of dissolved salts expressed  as a percentage Six main ions: Cl, Na, Mg, SO 4 , Ca, K  All others only make up 0.02% Also contains gases; CO 2  & O 2  mainly Gases in equilibrium w/atmosphere Seas buffer atmospheric gas concentration Exchange freely with the atmosphere Salinity not uniform—average salinity is 3.5% Range in open ocean 3.45% - 3.6% Coasts as low as 2% (fresh water from rivers) Persian Gulf around 4.2%
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Temperature in oceans is layered Thermocline—layer partition caused by temperature Warm surface – 450m Thermocline – next 2 km, temperature drops off rapidly with  depth Cold deep layer – below thermocline and extends to poles,  1 o C to 2.5 o C
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Vertical changes in sea-level linked to gravity of the  Moon and Sun Most coasts experience two high and two low per 24 hr and  53 min period 53 minute period is due to the rotation of the moon around the  earth; due to the rotation a point on earth under the moon  today will take an additional 53 minutes to be directly under the  moon The Moon moves 13.2 °  every day. The Moon is directly above  an observer on Earth.  One day later, Earth has completed  one complete rotation, but the Moon has traveled 13.2 ° . Earth  must now travel for another 53 minutes before the observer is  directly under it.
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Spring tide – highest tides, occur when Earth, Sun &  Moon are in alignment Neap tide – lower high tide, when Earth, Sun & Moon  form a 90 o  angle
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Tides vary from place to place Bay of Fundy (Canada) – 15m spring tide Unique “funnel” geography of bay Santa Barbara, CA – 2m Mid-ocean - ~1m
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Mainly from wind blowing across the water Crest – highest part of the wave Trough – lowest part of the wave Wavelength – distance between crests Wave height – vertical distance from crest to trough Water doesn’t move “with” a wave, but moves as the wave  passes by Circular oscillation
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