2_int_qualitative - Qualitative Analysis Qualitative...

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Author: J R Reid Qualitative Analysis Qualitative – definitions of solubility Solubility rules Identifying ions Balancing ionic equations Complex ions Balancing complex ion equations
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Qualitative? We can analyse chemicals in two main ways: Quantitative – an analysis using quantities like volume, mass or amount Qualitative – an analysis using qualities such as colour change, smell or precipitation (cloudiness) The purpose of this form of qualitative analysis is to identify the presence of certain ions in a solution
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Solubility When you add a chemical to water it could do two things: It could dissolve and the water will turn see through (transparent) – this is a soluble substance It might just sit there and not dissolve – it is insoluble If an insoluble substance is made in water the liquid will turn cloudy, this is called precipitation. A precipitate will settle over time and the solid will form a layer on the bottom of the test-tube
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Solubility Rules - Intro Ions come in two forms: Anions – negatively charged ions Cations – positively charged ions Every ionic substance is made from a cation and an anion Certain ions easily dissolve, others tend to be insoluble. They all follow certain rules We can use these rules in order to predict what ions are present in an ‘unknown’ solution
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Solubility Rules - Details These are the general rules: All Group 1 and ammonium (NH 4 + ) ions are soluble All nitrates are soluble All chlorides are soluble (except for Ag and Pb) All sulphates are soluble (except for Ba and Pb) All carbonates are insoluble (except for Group 1 and NH 4 + ) All hydroxides are insoluble (except for Group 1, NH 4 + and Ba)
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Identifying Ions We could use these rules to work out if hydroxides or
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2011 for the course CE 111 taught by Professor Teh during the Spring '11 term at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

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2_int_qualitative - Qualitative Analysis Qualitative...

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