BUAD 304- MIdterm 1 Terms

BUAD 304- MIdterm 1 Terms - OB Terms and Outline: Chapter...

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OB Terms and Outline: Chapter 2--- Foundations of Individual Behavior ability- An individual’s capacity to perform various tasks in a job. intellectual Abilities- The capacity to do mental activities-thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. general mental ability (GMA)-An overall factor of intelligence, as suggested by the positive corelations among specific intellectual ability dimensions. physical abilities- The capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics. Biographical characteristics- Personal characteristics such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. Learning- A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience Classical conditioning- Atype of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. (ie. Ringing a bell causing a dog to salivate in participation of food) Operant conditioning- A type of conditioning in which a desired voluntary behavior leads to reward or prevents a punishment. Behaviorism- A theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner. People learn to associate stimulus and response, but their ocnscious awareness of this association is irrelevant. Social Learning Theory- The view that people can learn through observation and direct experience. It is an extension of operant conditioning, but also acknowledges the existence of observational learning and the importance of perception of learning 1. Attentional processes- People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. 2. Retention processes- a model’s influence depends on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the model is no longer readily available. 3. Motor reproduction processes-after a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. 4. Reinforcement processes-Individuals are motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided Shaping behavior- systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. Continuous reinforcement- reinforcing a desired behavior each time it is demonstrated. Intermittent reinforcement- reinforcing a desired behavior often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
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Fixed-interval schedule- spacing rewards at uniform time intervals. Variable-interval schedule- Distributing rewards in time so that reinforcements are unpredictable. Fixed ratio schedule- initiating rewards after a fixed or constant number of responses. Variable ratio schedule- varying the reward relative to the behavior of the individual.
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2011 for the course BUAD 304 at USC.

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BUAD 304- MIdterm 1 Terms - OB Terms and Outline: Chapter...

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