– is the understanding of how organizations work and how to
have people perform efficiently. It is extracted from different areas of study, and is
interested in how these fields are integrated into workplace behavior.
Basic Leadership Model –
knowledge of OB x behavioral skills = leadership
Organizational Behavior –
1) individual level is where members make sense of the
world and derive motivation. 2) how teams function. How they deal, ethical decision
making, and power politics. 3) Organizational level – how the firm is structured, selecting
developing talent, creating sustaining a culture, manage change.
Behavioral skills –
facilitate team decision making, effective communication, effective
negotiation, use power wisely, and managers organization change.
Organization change over time –
theories become more complex and and yet more
accurate but they are harder to apply since they are all based on the situation and culture
limits the applicability of these theories also.
work was done from home/crafts, orgs were military and church, Adam
Smith division of labor and theories of use of machinery to save labor costs.
industrialism and mass production using division of labor.
scientific management fred taylor: cult of efficiency task analysis,
standardization, pay by performance, training, and systemic selection. Classical
management: Henry Fayle: PODSC: planning, organizing, directing, staffing, and
controlling. Unity of command: one leader, specialization: doing one activity and people
got good at it so replacing was easy. Scalar chain: the yields of an output TxC input
multiplied by constant. Span of control: how many subordinates under control. During
this time was 5 to 7 now its over 20.
Hawthorne studies by Elton mayo. Findings were that interaction in the test group
had increased productivity; feelings and supervision had big effect in production.
Informal groups also were formed due to interaction.
group dynamics: when teams made their own decisions they required more
information to be shared with employees and yet this was complex but made them have a
sense of commitment to the job. Bureaucracy with Max Weber: job descriptions, specific
responsibility, written rules, right of appeal, fair and equal treatment and managing
became a profession to learn.
Task leaders were only concerned with accomplishing the task. Social leaders were
concerned with employees. Limits to rationality suffice rather than maximize. There is a
limit of how much info. You can absorb. Gordon Howell: it asked for professionalism
and more scientific knowledge.
Systems thinking environment and organization explaining and predicting