Lecture 6_GraphicsVisuals

Lecture 6_GraphicsVisuals - graphics/visualaids overview...

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graphics / visual aids
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overview why use visual aids? types of visual aids design guidelines effective graphics
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why use visual aids? visual aids summarize data clarify and emphasize information catch the reader’s attention and interest reinforce a point made in the text motivate audiences to study data more closely give a report a professional gloss
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types of visual aids tables line graphs bar graphs pie charts line drawings photographs
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tables Cause of Death (as percentage of all deaths) Year Pneumonia and Influenza Heart Disease Cerebro- vascular Disease All Accidents Cancer 1900 11.8 8.0 6.2 4.2 3.7 1960 3.5 38.7 11.3 5.5 15.6 1970 3.3 38.3 10.8 6.0 17.2 Average 6.2 28.3 9.4 5.2 12.1 Table 1. Leading Causes of Death in 1900, 1960, and 1970
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why use a table? to illustrate precise numbers to display several factors at once to present all the numerical data,  giving the reader a context for that  data
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guidelines for tables place independent variables on left side,  dependent along the top use superscript tags for notes on specific  elements use rows and columns with readable width maintain parallelism identify units used convert fractions to decimal points
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tables Cause of Death (as percentage of all deaths) Year Pneumonia and Influenza Heart Disease Cerebro- vascular Disease All Accidents Cancer 1900 11.8 8.0 6.2 4.2 3.7 1960 3.5 38.7 11.3 5.5 15.6 1970 3.3 38.3 10.8 6.0 17.2 Average 6.2 28.3 9.4 5.2 12.1 Table 1. Leading Causes of Death in 1900, 1960, and 1970
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line graphs Figure 1. Graph of monthly sales totals for East and West Coast offices. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 East West Dollars (thousands) Months
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why use a line graph? to show trends, changes over time,  continuities, and direction to show the importance of nodal  points to show the relationship between two  sets of numbers
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guidelines for line graphs space tick marks equally along axis rules use no more than three lines on a graph if using two or three lines, make them visually  distinct and provide a legend be sure slope of line accurately represents  trend indicated by data consider changing the scale if the lines fall  too close together
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bar graphs Figure 1. Bar chart of East and West Coast office sales. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Jan/Feb Mar/Apr May/June July/Aug Sept/Oct Nov/Dec East West Dollars (thousands) Months
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why use a bar graph? to show discrete comparisons
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Lecture 6_GraphicsVisuals - graphics/visualaids overview...

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