cognitive psych exam 1 review

cognitive psych exam 1 review - Chapter 1: THE SCIENCE OF...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: THE SCIENCE OF COGNITION Cognitive psychology: The science of how the mind is organized to produce intelligent thought and how it is realized in the brain. 1. Motivations:- Intellectual curiosity Artificial intelligence: There is no satisfactory AI program yet that can recall facts, solve problems, reason, learn and speak with human facility Simon Langley, Bradshaw and Zytkow built computer programs to stimulate problem solving (among the best accomplishments for AI)- He found that methods of scientific discovery can be explained in terms of basic cognitive processes 2. Implications for other fields:- practical applications: to brain disorders and treatments -Important contributions to understanding schizophrenia and autism info on instruction-how to study effectively implications to law-such as reliability of eye witness testimony implications to design of computer systems-word processors and surfing the web 3. The History of Cognitive Psychology: - Early history: (traced to ancient Greeks) had philosophical debates about astronomy, physics, chemistry and biology no attempt to understanding human cognition until end of 19 th century before 19 th century, belief was that the human mind was no related to science or be subject for scientific analysis. thinking of cognit ive psychology as being a science (not as philosophy) is less than 150 years old o Plato: Nativism: we are born with a great deal of innate knowledge; VS. Empiricism: knowledge comes from experience Huge gap between knowledge and experience. Individual senses of the ever-changing material world cannot be paths to Truth Quest for finding forms of abstract knowledge which is independent of actual objects (innate, in the soul) o Aristotle: First scientist who wanted to study the world in which humans live A statue of a given form could be made of different matter; and different forms could be made of the same matter. The binding problem: sensory integration of many sources of perception and sensation into the unique mental representation of objects or people (e.g. patients of prosopagnosia) Three laws of association: similarity, contiguity, contrast 4. Psychology in Germany: focus on int rospective observat ion- Wilhem Wundt: o Estabilished first psychology laboratory and marked the beginning of psychology as a science. o Cognitive approach to psychology o Used method of introspection Int rospection: method where highly trained observers reported the contents of their own consciousness under carefully controlled conditions. Internal perception (armchair subjective introspection) Experimental self-observation (replicable across subjects and times) In experiment subjects reported an imageless experience between t ime of seeing word and making associat ion....
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cognitive psych exam 1 review - Chapter 1: THE SCIENCE OF...

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