301-Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Chapter Communicating...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Chapter Communicating Communicating Identity Identity The Social Self Identity is . . . Identity “a theory of self that is theory formed and maintained through actual or imagined interpersonal agreement about what the self is like” (Schlenker, 1985) Identity is . . . Identity “forged, expressed, maintained, and forged, modified in the crucible of social life, as its contents undergo the continual process of actual or imagined observation, judgment, and reaction by audiences (oneself and other)” and (Schlenker, 1985) (Schlenker, Basically, identity . . . Basically, refers to the way we see ourselves refers as shaped by our interactions with others, including how people respond to us. people is related to, yet different from, is self-esteem (i.e., how positively versus negatively we see ourselves). ourselves). Theories Related to Identity Development and Expansion Development Social Identity Theory People’s concepts of themselves are People’s linked to their membership in social groups. Social groups can be broad (gender or Social nationality) or narrow (group of 4 friends). friends). Social groups use in-group behavior to Social create solidarity and display their identity to outsiders. identity Communication Theory of Identity Communication Identity is constructed through four frames: Personal: images people construct about themselves themselves Enactment: images that reflect a person’s interaction with others Relationship: the roles we play with particular relational partners (son, daughter, boss) Communal: images that are tied to the groups or communities with which a person associates Self Expansion Theory Self This theory is based on three premises: This People want to expand their experiences People and extend their identities. and This desire for expansion helps explain This why we enter into relationships with others. others. A relationship is successful when it relationship expands both partners’ identities. Seven Links between Identity, Perception, and Social Interaction Social Our identities . . . provide us with a hierarchical structure provide of who we are; of are shaped through interaction and are feedback from others (i.e., “The feedback Looking Glass Self”); Looking help us interpret feedback from help others; others; incorporate expectations and incorporate guide behavior; guide influence our evaluations and influence expectations, including selfselffulfilling prophecies; determine the likelihood of goal determine achievement; achievement; influence the social relationships influence we will pursue or maintain (i.e., the “Matching Hypothesis”). the Self Presentation Self Self-presentation involves portraying a Self-presentation particular image of self to others. particular Shifts in self-presentation are primarily a method of highlighting (rather method than inventing) certain aspects of self. self. Being able to highlight aspects of the self Being that are contextually appropriate is an important component of communication competence. communication Self-presentations that are Self-presentations perceived to be deceptive usually lead to negative consequences. consequences. Self-presentation is usually Self-presentation habitual, although it can be strategic. strategic. Goffman’s Dramaturgical Perspective on Self-Presentation Self-Presentation As Shakespeare once wrote, As “all the world is a stage,” with people performing their identity differently depending on the audience. on People engage in both front- and People back-stage behaviors. back-stage Self-presentation (or front-stage Self-presentation behavior) is especially important when: when: • we are presenting our core identity; • vital positive or negative consequences are at stake; • valued rules of conduct must be valued followed. followed. Brown and Levinson’s Politeness Theory Politeness Threats to face are an inherent part of Threats social interaction. Positive Face is the favorable image that a person presents and hopes to have validated by others; it reflects the desire to be liked. Negative Face reflects a person’s desire to be free from imposition and restraint and to have control of her or his time, property, space, and resources. property, Factors that Affect the Severity of the Face Threatening Act of The more important the rule violated, the more The severe FTA. severe The more harm the behavior produces, the more The severe the FTA. severe The more the actor is directly responsible for the The behavior, the more severe the FTA. behavior, The more of an imposition the behavior is, the The more severe the FTA. more The more power the receiver has over the sender, The the more severe the FTA. the The larger the social distance between sender and The receiver the more severe the FTA. Options for Dealing with Face-Threatening Acts Face-Threatening Preventative Facework Preventative Strategies that help minimize Strategies or prevent potential threats or to face include: Disclaimers Verbal Handicapping Corrective Facework Corrective Strategies that people use Strategies to repair a damaged face: to Avoidance Avoidance Humor Humor Apologies Apologies Accounts Physical remediation Physical Aggression Aggression ...
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