History of Jazz part 1

History of Jazz part 1 - H istory of Jazz Study Guide...

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History of Jazz Study Guide Timbre—the color of sound, each instrument has its own sound and harmonic frequencies o Changes in timbre for expressive purposes come from AA folk tradition Change pitch with air pressure and length of the tube Rhythm—relates to biology: heart beats and breathing o Speech or breath rhythm is often used in introductions Cadenza—unaccompanied passage Rubato—Italian for “stolen time”—the stretching of time for expression (used for intros) Downbeat—where you begin counting “one” Measure:- the space from downbeat to downbeat Cycle-circular time, African musical concept: not notated, but oral Meter- organizing pulses into a regular pattern (1-2-3-4, 1-2-3-4) Syncopation-accents on “off” or “weak” beats Rhythmic contrast or polyrhythm—always two contrasting rhythmic layers happening simultaneously o Foundation layers-steady, unchanging o Variable layers-constantly changing, improvised Comping (for harmony instruments)- playing chords in a rhythmically unpredictable fashion Groove- total rhythmic framework Pitch-the frequency of a note, ranges from low to high o Divides into melody and harmony o Melody- a succession of pitches, one at a time—the horizontal dimension of music o Harmony- simultaneous pitches, or chords—the vertical dimension of music Scale-collection of pitches within the octave from which melodies are drawn Tonality- scale’s center of gravity—the tonic , melody pulled toward the tonic o Major: whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half o Minor: whole-half-whole-whole-half-whole-whole The blues- neither major nor minor, but in between o Blues uses variable intonation-bending pitches for expressive purposes o Only on certain scale degrees (3 rd , 5 th ) Riff- short, catchy melodic idea, usually repeated How to use chords? o Harmonic progression—chords in rhythmic order= changes Music moves between I and V: V=tension and I=rest
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Dissonance- unpleasant, no movement, unstable Cadences- resting places in harmony Harmonic substitutions- add or subtract chords from harmonic progression—usually more complicated Modulation-change of key Atonal music-no tonal center, sounds dissonant o Playing outside- atonal o Playing inside- tonal Texture- balance between harmony and melody o Pitch only, no percussion o Homophonic texture- basic texture, one main melody with harmonic accompaniment Block chord texture, countermelody Block-chord texture- one melody with accompaniment, all pitches played at the same time, in the same rhythm—saxes and trumpets usually play block chords in big bands (called soli) Countermelody-secondary melodic line beneath the melody-important but not distracting o Monophonic texture- one melody, no harmonic accompaniment May be performed by more than one voice Breaks and stop-time Break- brief passage (2-4) bars with one instrument with no
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History of Jazz part 1 - H istory of Jazz Study Guide...

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