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Unformatted text preview: Sociology Review Quiz 1 Chapter 1 Sociology- is the scientific study of human social life, groups, and societies Sociology demonstrates the need to take a much broader view of why we are as we are, and hwy we act as we do. It teaches us that what we regard as inevitable, good, or true may not be such, and that the natural in our life is strongly influenced by historical and social forces Sociology can also teach us to try to identify general patterns of behavior in particular individuals and to be systematic in explaining the social influences on these behavioral patterns Learning to think sociologicallylooking, in other words, at the broader view means cultivating the imagination Sociological imagination- requires us, above all, the think ourselves away from the familiar routines of our daily lives in order to look at them anew Social structure- refers to the fact that the social contexts of our lives do not just consist of random assortments of events or action; they are structured, or patterned, in distinct ways Structuration- reconstructed at every moment by the very building blocks that compose themhuman beings like you and me Globalization- the growth of world interdependence, a social phenomenon that will be discussed throughout this book It is the task of sociology to help us understand this world and what future it is likely to hold for us Auguste Comte o Coined the term sociology o Believed that this new filed could produce a knowledge of society based on scientific evidence Emile Durkheim o Sociology must study social facts , aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals, such as the state of the economy or the influence of religion o Organic solidarity- For a society to have a continuing existence over time, its specialized institutions must work in harmony with each other and function as an integrated whole o Social constraint- society has primacy over the individual person o Anomie- a feeling of aimlessness or despair provoked by modern social life being one of these influences, causes suicidal thoughts o Studied suicide and its patterns Karl Marx o Materialist conception of history- not the ideas or values human beings hold that are the main causes of social change but social change is prompted primarily by economic influences o Capitalism- a system of production that contrasts radically with precious economic systems in history Max Weber o Economic factors are important, but ideas and values have just as much impact on social change o Bureaucracy- is a large organization that is divided into jobs based on specific function and staffed by officials ranked according to a hierarchy Harriet Martineau- o Must focus on all aspects of society when studying it o Must include understanding of womens lives o First to turn the sociological eye on previously ignored issues, including marriage, children, domestic and religious life, and race relations...
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- Spring '08