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Notes for Microorganisms January 13

Notes for Microorganisms January 13 - Microorganisms Study...

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Microorganisms Study Guide for Exam 2 January 13, 2011 Lactic Acid: causes pain in the body/muscles after working out. (Starts eating muscles after too much exercise; can cause internal bleeding.) Coloforms- rapid lactose fermenter -Escherichia coli (E coli): Number one cause of meat contamination & vegetable contamination. -Heinz 57 (HO57): Most recent strain of E coli; produces extremely toxic endotoxin and grows rapidly. -Salmonella typhi (typimirium suis): has been found in meat, but is most abundant in veggies. Can’t be washed off because it gets inside the produce. -Connpylobacteria -Klebsiella -Vibbriocholerae- causes cholera; occurs in dirty water, is widespread. Cholera is bad because it strikes all at once. When it mutates into a pathogenic form, everyone will die from it at the same time. - Helicobacteria pylori: opportunistic parasite; causes stomach ulcers (Foods that raise stomach acid: Dairy products!)
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-Shigella: causes dysentery, main source is water supply. -Acetobacter: a lactic producer; ferments foods -Enterobacter: Third behind E coli and Salmonella; also a colloform Notes for January 20, 2011 Fungi Mushrooms can be very toxic. Yeast is the most well studied nuclei in the world. Used in making alcohol, bread products, dairy products. (Important to food industry) Fungi are 90% water, will absorb a lot of the stuff in the ground. Tree gets nutrients from fungi. The largest organisms in the world “The Big Laughing Mushroom”: causes people to laugh Ascomycetes : (ascus means sac) form spores (ascospores) usually 8. Basidiomycetes: club shaped structure, usually 4 spores produced Hypha (hyphi): long, cylindrical tube, separated by septums, inside each cell are nuclei; no septum means that it is a mold; partial septum means that it is a cenocyst When you have a lot of hypha (hyphi), it is called mycelium Zygomycetes: grow in horse manure Produce in visidium and ascus* When two nuclei are combined Dikaryon: how most basidiomycetes grow; produce gametes(sperm) which fuse with the egg; n=haploid n 2 =diploid; produce A-sexually Conidia: mass produced Wash spores in Chlorox; Use tear gas on Penicillin Penecillium: conidia can be yellow to green Bread mold: sporangioforms are tiny and invisible to the naked eye; meiosis takes place in the zygospores; cannot kill them
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