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Study Guide Exam 2

Study Guide Exam 2 - Microorganisms Study Guide for Exam#2...

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Microorganisms Study Guide for Exam #2 MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY 1. MEDICAL BACTERIOLOGY a. Medical Groupings: i. Pyogenic Cocci (Gram + & -) ii. Gram +, Endospore Forming Bacilli iii. Acid Fast Bacilli (Gram +) iv. Corynebacteria (Gram +); rod-shaped bacteria. They are widely distributed in nature and are mostly innocuous. Can cause human disease diphtheria. v. Gram-, Facultatively Anaerobic, Enteric Bacilli vi. Small, Gram- Bacilli 1. Brucella suis- can transmit to human through pigs, and there are several cases showing that it can also infect wild swine. The disease it causes is brucellosis 2. Bordetella- cause pertussis or whooping cough in humans 3. Yersima petis- (responsible for plague); can grow with or without oxygen. Animals that are known to carry the bacteria include rats, prairie dogs, and fleas. During an outbreak, the bacteria can survive for months in cool, moist conditions, such as a rodent hole. Approximately 10 to 20 people in the United States develop an infection each year from flea or rodent bites 4. Haemophilus influenzae- formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium; Most strains of H. influenzae are opportunistic pathogens; that is, they usually live in their host without causing disease, but cause problems only when other factors (such as a viral infection or reduced immune function) create an opportunity vii. Gram- Anaerobic Bacilli 1. Bacteroides fragilis (Appendix/Ulcers) viii. Mycoplasmas: a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall. Without a cell wall, they are unaffected by many common antibiotics such as penicillin or
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other beta-lactam antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic. ix. Spirochetes: are gram negative, helical bacteria possessing an internal flagellum known as an axial filament. Ex: syphilis x. Very Small Bacteria 1. Rickettsias: a genus of non-motile, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long) or thread-like (10 μm long). Carried by many ticks, fleas, and lice, and cause diseases in humans such as typhus, rickettsialpox, Boutonneuse fever, African tick bite fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Flinders Island spotted fever and Queensland tick typhus (Australian Tick Typhus). 2. Chlamydias: Human STD xi. Actinomyctes: Gram-positive bacteria; They include some of the most common soil life, freshwater life, and marine life, playing an important role in decomposition of organic materials, such as cellulose and chitin, and thereby playing a vital part in organic matter turnover and carbon cycle. 2. MEDICAL MYCOLOGY a. Infectious Types i. Cutaneous Fungi (Dermatophytes): Involves deep epidermis and keratinized body areas (skin, hair, nails). Diseases are generally cosmetic, not life- threatening.
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