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Chater Nineteen Outline

Chater Nineteen Outline - the blood that fights against...

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Chapter 19 Blood A. Functions: Transportation of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes. Regulation of the Ph and Ion composition of interstitial fluid, restriction of fluid losses at injury sites, defense against toxins and pathogens, stabilization of body temperature. B. Components 1. Plasma: liquid portion of the blood. 2. Formed Elements: mostly cells/ the solid parts 1. Erythrocytes- red blood cells, essential for the transportation of oxygen in blood. Contain hemoglobin (carries oxygen). 2. Leukocytes- white blood cells, body's defense mechanisms. Part of a person’s immune system. 3. Platelets- small membrane-bound cell fragments that contain enzymes and other substance important to the process of clotting . C. Blood Types 1. Antigens: substances that can trigger a protective defense mechanism called an immune response. Protein on the surface of the red blood cell. 2. Antibodies : attack foreign proteins and pathogens. Chemical in the plasma of
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Unformatted text preview: the blood that fights against foreign substances. 3. A, B, AB, O System- (Blood type) classification determined by the presence or absence of specific surface antigens in RBC cell membranes. A. Surface antigen A only. B. Surface antigen B only. AB. Both types of surface antigen. (universal recipient) O. has neither A or B antigen. (universal donor) 4. RH Factor- another protein on the surface of the red blood cell. D. Blood Clotting 1. Vascular spasm- contraction of smooth muscle cells in the blood vessel wall. 2. Platelet Plug- platelets become sticky and try to close the opening. 3. Coagulation phase- Step A. Prothrombin (inactive) is converted to Thrombin (active). Step B. Fibrinogen (inactive) is converted to Fibrin (active). Step C. Fibrinogen is converted to Fibrin by Thrombin. Fibrin forms a network that traps red blood cells....
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