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CHAPTER 3 OUTLINE - CHAPTER 3 OUTLINE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES...

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CHAPTER 3 OUTLINE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES PART II II. Initiating and Coordinating Behavior: A Division of Labor A. The Central and Peripheral Nervous System 1. The central nervous system- the brain and spinal cord which act as the control executive of the body. (a.) nerves- bundles of axons that communicate messages throughout the body. 2. The peripheral nervous system - the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. (a.) afferent nerve pathways - (sensory) in which information travels to the brain and spinal cord (b.) efferent nerve pathways - (motor) carry messages away from brain muscles. (c.) somatic nervous system - carries sensory information toward the brain and controls muscles movement. (d.) autonomic nervous system - controls heart rate, digestion. blood pressure, and other autonomic body functions. * sympathetic division- prepares the body for emergencies, increases heart rate, breathing, etc (fight or flight). * parasympathetic division - calms the body down and returns it to normal after an emergency. B. Determining Brain Function 1. Brain Damage and Lesion (a.) Observation of characteristics- to learn about brain function we study the damaged brain, "talk" to the brain, "listen" to the brain in action. (b.) Broca's Aphasia- with brain damage to Broca's area, the person understands but cannot produce spoken language. (c.) Wernicke's Aphasia - with damage to Wernicke's area, the person cannot easily understand spoken language.
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