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Chapter 7 Outline - Chapter Seven Outline I Defining and...

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Chapter Seven Outline I. Defining and Studying Learning A. _ Experience __- important in determining the realization of genetic potential. B. _ Learning __- potential to respond-to see if learning has occurred it must be reflected in behavior change. C. _ Laws of Learning __- learning is studied in simpler organisms to discover laws. D. Reasons for the Use of Animals: 1. _ More experimental control __ 2. _ Learning mechanisms are simpler and easier to understand __ II. Learning About Events: Noticing and Ignoring A. _ Habituation __- we notice things that are novel (orienting response) repeated exposure causes reaction to diminish. B. _ Sensitization __- an increase in the tendency to respond to an event that has been repeated. It is more likely when the repeated event is intense (loud noise). Sensitization effects are short lived. C. Short-term and Long-term Habituation 1. _ Short-term Habituation __- loss in responsiveness is temporary. Ex: Tapping the shell of a sea snail repeatedly until it stops pulling in its foot, wait one minute then tap it again and it will pull its foot in again. 2. _ Long-term Habituation __- decrease in responsiveness persists over a long period of time. Ex: Drug tolerance persists over a long period of time. III. Learning What Events Signal: Classical Conditioning A. _ Ivan Pavlov __- Russian researcher accidentally discovered classical conditioning working with dogs. Dogs drooled at the sound or sight of the food dish or attendant. B. The Terminology of Classical Conditioning 1. _ Unconditioned Stimuli __(US)- Stimuli that elicit a response without any conditioning such as food in the mouth . (unconditioned) elicits a relax. 2. _ Unconditioned Response __- (UR)- The response (salivation) that occurs naturally when presented with food (unconditioned reflex). 3. _ Conditioned Stimuli __- (CS)- Neutral stimuli that will not cause a response unless it is trained (conditioned). Becomes a signal, EX: Footsteps of the trainer.
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