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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 101
Quantum Numbers, Orbitals, Electrons
10/27/2010 Part A: Information gages from OWL Shapes of orbitals & Electron Dot pictures of orbitals Orbital Shages and Sizes. Orbitals have characteristic shapes. 5 orbitals are spherical p orbitals are 'dumbell' orl'figure 8‘ shaped d orbitals are cloverieai‘ shaped ti orbital For a given type of orbital, as n increases the size of the orbital increases.
This is illustrated with the first three 5 orbitals. is This also means that as n increases, the probablility of finding the electron
further from the nocleus increases and that the energy increases. a orbitals which result §rom Solving the Schrodinger Wave Equation can be represented by electron “cloud” pictures. The dots in these pictures represent the probability of ﬁnding the electron at various positions around the nucleus. The more dense the clots,
the higher the probabiiity of ﬁnding the eleczron. Er win
Serralinger ‘ Note that some orbita¥s have "blank" piaca. These are nodes, where there is zero probability of ﬁnding the electron. "fhere are 2 kinds of nodes: A SEherical Nude
Looks like a circle around the nucleus. The number of spherical noﬁes starts with 23:5 for each kinu‘ of orbital and increases with each n ievei.
is = D, 29 z 1, 2p a0, 3;) = 1. 3d = 0, 46m 1, An Angular Node Looks like a line through the nucleusi The number of angular nodes is equaé to I (the angular momentum quantum number) and gives the characteristic siege to the s, p and d orbitals.
s orbitai r: D, p orbital c :, d orbital 2: 2 Summa Table: [WM .4 WW mew M wwwamwwumwmum mm m» IuwIIMMMWAWWAWM rimmm am!» "4‘ ... i» yum.vﬂw' a!
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1 Angular node Part B: Practice with Quantum Numbers, Orbitals and Electrons Questions 15 cover the basics on relating quantum numbers, orbitals and electrons.
Questions 6—7 are more advanced: for those who are interested in nodes and dot pictures. 1. (a) Give the possible values (generic, just the rules) for the quantum numbers from the wave equation for the hydrogen atom:
Principal quantum number (n), for an electron shell: Angular momentum quantum number (e), for the subshell:
Magnetic quantum number (my), for the spatial orientation: (b) Give the possible values for the eiectron spin quantum number (ms): 2. How many subshells are in any shell, n?
How many orbitals are in any subshell, a? How many orbitals are in any shell, 11? 3. When n x 4, what are all of the possible values for the quantum numbers :2 and me? What
types and how many of each orbital type are expected? 4. How many orbitals are described by n 2 3? Give all possible values for e and me as part of
your answer. Name each type of orbital (example: 1s, 3d, 5p, etc.) 5. How many electrons are described by n e 4, 6 w 0, 1? Give all possible values for me and
ms as part of your answer. 6. How many angular nodes exist for an s orbitat? A p orbital? A d orbital? An f orbital? How
many angular nodes would you expect for an orbital where e m 4? What is the number of angular nodes for any value of a? How do these nodes give rise to the shapes of atomic orbitals? 7. Answer the questions for the orbitals shown below. 5
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Surfs ca .. Starters: orbital name: orbital name: # electrons in orbital: # electrons in orbital: # electrons in subshell: # electrons in subshell: orbital name:
# electrons in orbital: # electrons in subshell: Bﬂu_lida rg
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 Spring '08
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 Atomic orbital, WWWWWWJ WMMMWMWE

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