Orbitals - Chemistry 101 Quantum Numbers Orbitals Electrons...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 101 Quantum Numbers, Orbitals, Electrons 10/27/2010 Part A: Information gages from OWL Shapes of orbitals & Electron Dot pictures of orbitals Orbital Shages and Sizes. Orbitals have characteristic shapes. 5 orbitals are spherical p orbitals are 'dumbell' orl'figure 8‘ shaped d orbitals are cloverieai‘ shaped ti orbital For a given type of orbital, as n increases the size of the orbital increases. This is illustrated with the first three 5 orbitals. is This also means that as n increases, the probablility of finding the electron further from the nocleus increases and that the energy increases. a orbitals which result §rom Solving the Schrodinger Wave Equation can be represented by electron “cloud” pictures. The dots in these pictures represent the probability of finding the electron at various positions around the nucleus. The more dense the clots, the higher the probabiiity of finding the eleczron. Er win Serra-linger ‘ Note that some orbita¥s have "blank" piaca. These are nodes, where there is zero probability of finding the electron. "fhere are 2 kinds of nodes: A SEherical Nude Looks like a circle around the nucleus. The number of spherical nofies starts with 23:5 for each kinu‘ of orbital and increases with each n ievei. is = D, 29 z 1, 2p a0, 3;) = 1. 3d = 0, 46m 1, An Angular Node Looks like a line through the nucleusi The number of angular nodes is equaé to I (the angular momentum quantum number) and gives the characteristic siege to the s, p and d orbitals. s orbitai r: D, p orbital c :, d orbital 2: 2 Summa Table: [WM .4 WW mew M wwwamwwumwmum mm m» Iuw-IIMMMWAWWAWM rim-mm am!» "4‘ ... i» yum-.vflw' a! VA m. WW Elimimemgmifiimeamme‘ eweeaem WWWWWWJ WMMMWMWE Dumbbell 1 Angular node Part B: Practice with Quantum Numbers, Orbitals and Electrons Questions 1-5 cover the basics on relating quantum numbers, orbitals and electrons. Questions 6—7 are more advanced: for those who are interested in nodes and dot pictures. 1. (a) Give the possible values (generic, just the rules) for the quantum numbers from the wave equation for the hydrogen atom: Principal quantum number (n), for an electron shell: Angular momentum quantum number (e), for the subshell: Magnetic quantum number (my), for the spatial orientation: (b) Give the possible values for the eiectron spin quantum number (ms): 2. How many subshells are in any shell, n? How many orbitals are in any subshell, a? How many orbitals are in any shell, 11? 3. When n x 4, what are all of the possible values for the quantum numbers :2 and me? What types and how many of each orbital type are expected? 4. How many orbitals are described by n 2 3? Give all possible values for e and me as part of your answer. Name each type of orbital (example: 1s, 3d, 5p, etc.) 5. How many electrons are described by n e 4, 6 w 0, 1? Give all possible values for me and ms as part of your answer. 6. How many angular nodes exist for an s orbitat? A p orbital? A d orbital? An f orbital? How many angular nodes would you expect for an orbital where e m 4? What is the number of angular nodes for any value of a? How do these nodes give rise to the shapes of atomic orbitals? 7. Answer the questions for the orbitals shown below. 5 i t Baunéarg _. 36mm m bet picture Surfs ca .. Starters: orbital name: orbital name: # electrons in orbital: # electrons in orbital: # electrons in subshell: # electrons in subshell: orbital name: # electrons in orbital: # electrons in subshell: Bflu_lida rg Sin'f'a ce ...
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Orbitals - Chemistry 101 Quantum Numbers Orbitals Electrons...

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