Psych 101 Exam 3 Review

Psych 101 Exam 3 Review - Phonemes- The smallest...

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Phonemes - The smallest distinctive sound unit Examples: b-a-t spells bat; but there are 3 phonemes. Similar to syllables. Morphemes- The smallest unit that carries meaning Example: pre-view has 2 morphemes. How many morphemes does undesirables have? Answer: 4 Grammar- A system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others Semantics- The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language Ex: Adding “ed” means? Past tense Syntax- The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language. Example: White house (English) Casa blanca (Spanish). Adjective before noun or vice versa Language Stages : Babbling Stage- ( Beginning at 3 to 4 months) The stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language At 10 months, babbling reflects native language of household One-Word Stage- ( From about age 1 to 2) The stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words Two-Word Stage- ( Beginning about age 2) The stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements Telegraphic Speech Characteristic of 2-word stage. Early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words The Language Debate: Behaviorist versus Language Acquisition Device views 2 major views: Behaviorist (Skinner): Language develops as a result of operant conditioning. Inborn grammar (Chomsky) : All grammar has fundamental essence. We have mind functions deigned specifically for language. We learn language based on the principles of: Association Imitation Reinforcement Inborn Grammar View of Language -Languages vary in their rules of grammar, but they all have rules of grammar and syntax o Verbs, nouns, adjectives and their typical orderings -However, languages differ in how they are ordered. o Example: White house (English) Casa blanca (Spanish). Adjective before noun or vice versa •Similar to our ability to detect all phonemes from birth, we are able to detect all forms of grammar •The specific language we are born into flips a switch that tells the child how to speak Example: In English, the “Adjective before noun” switch is flipped Evidence supporting Inborn Grammar View of Language Language is generative: We do not imitate others or phrases we have heard. People who don’t speak can still comprehend and even create language Example: El Salvadorian school for the deaf Parents do not correct the poor grammar of their kids. Example:
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2011 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Jogmen during the Fall '08 term at Loyola Chicago.

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Psych 101 Exam 3 Review - Phonemes- The smallest...

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