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IEEE Wireless Communications • February 2004 38 1536-1284/04/$20.00 © 2004 IEEE Broadcast [[REP,S,CERTd,Ns,t]Kd- t]Kd-]Ka-],CERTa A T OPICS IN W IRELESS S ECURITY I NTRODUCTION In recent years mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have received tremendous attention because of their self-configuration and self-main- tenance capabilities. While early research effort assumed a friendly and cooperative environment and focused on problems such as wireless chan- nel access and multihop routing, security has become a primary concern in order to provide protected communication between nodes in a potentially hostile environment. Although securi- ty has long been an active research topic in wire- line networks, the unique characteristics of MANETs present a new set of nontrivial chal- lenges to security design. These challenges include open network architecture, shared wire- less medium, stringent resource constraints, and highly dynamic network topology. Consequently, the existing security solutions for wired networks do not directly apply to the MANET domain. The ultimate goal of the security solutions for MANETs is to provide security services, such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity, anonymity, and availability, to mobile users. In order to achieve this goal, the security solution should provide complete protection spanning the entire protocol stack. Table 1 describes the secu- rity issues in each layer. In this article we consid- er a fundamental security problem in MANET: the protection of its basic functionality to deliver data bits from one node to another . In other words, we seek to protect the network connectiv- ity between mobile nodes over potentially multi- hop wireless channels, which is the basis to support any network security services. Multihop connectivity is provided in MANETs through two steps: (1) ensuring one-hop connectivity through link-layer protocols (e.g., wireless medi- um access control, MAC); and (2) extending connectivity to multiple hops through network- layer routing and data forwarding protocols (e.g., ad hoc routing). Accordingly, we focus on the link- and network-layer security issues, chal- lenges, and solutions in MANETs in this article. One distinguishing characteristic of MANETs from the security design perspective is the lack of a clear line of defense. Unlike wired networks that have dedicated routers, each mobile node in an ad hoc network may function as a router and forward packets for other peer nodes. The wire- less channel is accessible to both legitimate net- work users and malicious attackers. There is no well defined place where traffic monitoring or access control mechanisms can be deployed. As a result, the boundary that separates the inside network from the outside world becomes blurred. On the other hand, the existing ad hoc routing protocols, such as Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) [1] and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [2], and wireless MAC protocols, such as 802.11 [3], typically assume a trusted and cooperative environment. As a result, a malicious attacker can readily become a
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2011 for the course ICT 1 taught by Professor 1 during the Spring '11 term at Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.

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