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Trust Evaluation Based Security Solution in Ad Hoc Networks Zheng Yan 1 , Peng Zhang 2 , Teemupekka Virtanen 3 1 Nokia Research Center, Nokia Group, Helsinki, Finland 2 Nokia Venture Organization, Nokia Group, Helsinki, Finland 3 Helsinki University of Technology, Finland {zheng.z.yan, peng.p.zhang}@nokia.com, [email protected] Abstract. Ad hoc networks are new paradigm of networks offering unrestricted mobility without any underlying infrastructure. The ad hoc networks have salient characteristics that are totally different from conventional networks. These cause extra challenges on security. In an ad hoc network, each node should not trust any peer. However, traditional cryptographic solution is useless against threats from internal compromised nodes. Thus, new mechanisms are needed to provide effective security solution for the ad hoc networks. In this paper, a trust evaluation based security solution is proposed to provide effective security decision on data protection, secure routing and other network activities. Logical and computational trust analysis and evaluation are deployed among network nodes. Each node's evaluation of trust on other nodes should be based on serious study and inference from such trust factors as experience statistics, data value, intrusion detection result, and references of other nodes, as well as node owner's preference and policy. In order to prove the applicability of the proposed solution, authors further present a routing protocol and analyze its security over several active attacks. KEYWORDS : trust, security, ad hoc networks 1 Introduction Ad hoc networks are new paradigm of networks offering unrestricted mobility without any underlying infrastructure. An ad hoc network is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals that communicate with each other by forming a multi- hop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. Each node functions as both a host and a router. More critically, the network topology is in general dynamic, because the connectivity among the nodes may vary with time due to node departures, new node arrivals, and the possibility of having mobile nodes. There are two major types of wireless ad hoc networks: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) and Smart Sensor Networks (SSNs) [1]. In this paper, our discussion will 1
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mainly focus on the MANETs. Significant applications of MANETs include establishing survivable, efficient, dynamic communication for emergency/rescue operations, disaster relief efforts, and military networks that cannot rely on centralized and organized connectivity. Operation in an ad hoc network introduces new security problems. The ad hoc networks are generally more prone to physical security threats. The possibility of eavesdropping, spoofing, denial-of-service, and impersonation attacks increases [1]. Similar to fixed networks, security of the ad hoc networks is considered from the
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