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routing security in ad hoc networks - lundberg

routing security in ad hoc networks - lundberg - Routing...

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Routing Security in Ad Hoc Networks Janne Lundberg Helsinki University of Technology Telecommunications Software and Multimedia Laboratory [email protected] Abstract The existing ad hoc routing protocols do not accommodate any security and are highly vulnerable to attacks. We discuss threats and attacks against ad hoc routing under several areas of application. We also look at some suggested solutions that could be used when secure protocols are designed. The current protocols should not be used in hostile environments unless the applications are especially designed to op- erate under insecure routing or until protocols with enhanced security are introduced. 1 Introduction An ad hoc network is an infrastructureless network where the nodes themselves are re- sponsible for routing the packets. In the traditional Internet, routers within the central parts of the network are owned by a few well known operators and are therefore assumed to be somewhat trustworthy. This assumption no longer holds in an ad hoc network since all nodes entering the network are expected to take part in routing. Also, because the links are usually wireless, any security that was gained because of the difficulty of tapping into a network is lost. Furthermore, because the topology in such a network can be highly dynamic, traditional routing protocols can no longer be used. The routing protocol sets an upper limit to security in any packet network. If routing can be misdirected, the entire network can be paralyzed. The problem is enlarged by the fact that routing usually needs to rely on the trustworthiness of all the nodes that are participating in the routing process. It is hard to distinguish compromised nodes from nodes that are suffering from bad links. The main objective of this paper is to discuss ad hoc routing security with respect to the area of application. We limit our study to IP based networks. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 we define some criteria that can be used to evaluate ad hoc routing protocols. Different types of threats against routing are discussed in Section 3, and the effects of the area of application are discussed in Section 4. Some of the current ad hoc routing protocols are introduced in Section 5, and some suggested solutions to known problems are introduced in Section 6. Section 7 concludes the paper. 1
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HUT TML 2000 Tik-110.501 Seminar on Network Security 2 Criteria In this section we list criteria for a secure routing protocol. Some of the obvious require- ments for all routing protocols such as loop-freedom have been omitted for brevity. From the standpoint of security, an optimal routing protocol should fulfill the following criteria. Certain discovery. If a route between two points in a network exists, it should always be possible to find it. Also, the node which requested the route should be able to be sure it has found a route to the correct node.
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