Chapter 3: Perception Summary This chapter introduces the field of perception: the process by which sensory information is processed to create our conscious experiences of the environment and to guide our actions. Percept The meaningful interpretation of sensory information. Perception Processing sensory information such that it produces a meaningful understanding of the information. Because it is our most dominant sense and because it dominates the field of perceptual research, visual perception is the focal point of this chapter’s treatment of perceptual processes. Perceptual processes are often divided into two major, complementary types of processing: bottom-up (data-driven) processing and top- down (user-driven) processing. Bottom-up(data- When perception (or other cognitive processes) results from driven) the combination of individual pieces of sensory information. processing Bottom-up processing refers to the contribution of the physical features of the stimulus to our perceptual experience. A great deal of bottom-up theories arose from pattern recognition , Pattern The ability to recognize an event as an instance of a recognition particular category of event. which itself was based on two theories: template matching (multiple-trace memory model, Posner experiments) Template A pattern or model against which a stimulus is compared to determine whether it belongs to a particular category. Template The process of comparing a stimulus with templates to matching determine which category it belongs to.
Template- The theory that a stimulus is compared with templates in matching order to determine if they match, and when they do match, theory the stimulus is recognized as belonging to a category. Multiple-trace Traces of each individual experience are recorded in memory model memory. No matter how often a particular kind of event is (Hintzman) experienced, a memory trace of the event is recorded each time. and feature detection (pandemonium model ). Feature A component, part, or particular characteristic of a stimulus. Feature A model of perception based on the hypothesis that we detection theory detect patterns on the basis of their individual features. Pandemonium A model of pattern recognition consisting of three levels: model (Selfridge) data, cognitive demons, and a decision demon. Cognitive demon A little elf-like element of the pandemonium model of pattern recognition whose activity is linked to a specific letter. A cognitive demon listens to the overall pattern of activity (yelling) among the feature demons to determine if its own letter is present. If so, it will start to yell. Decision demon A little elf-like element of the pandemonium model of pattern recognition that determines the ultimate response (which letter is recognized). A decision demon listens to the overall pattern of activity (yelling) among the cognitive demons to determine reach a final decision as to what letter is being represented.
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- Winter '08