Chapter 4 in details

Chapter 4 in details - Chapter 4: The Varieties of...

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Chapter 4: The Varieties of Attention Summary This chapter introduces the topic of attention. Attention does not refer to a single process, but rather to a variety of processes and methods for studying the environment. Specific aspects of attention that will be addressed in this chapter are selecting stimuli to attend to, selecting stimuli to ignore, involuntary attention, attempting to attend to more than one thing at a time, switching our attention between tasks, and the possibility of perceiving without attention or awareness. As Broadbent demonstrated with his dichotic listening tasks , Dichotic Participants are exposed to two verbal messages presented listening simultaneously, and are required to answer questions posed in only one of the messages. people have the ability to attend to important information, all the while ignoring irrelevant information ( selective attention , cocktail party phenomenon ). Selective Attending to relevant information and ignoring irrelevant attention information. Cocktail party The capacity for attending to one conversation in a crowded phenomenon room in which many other conversations are going on. His filter theory explained this aptitude by the fact that trivial information is prevented from being extensively processed ( early selection ). Filter The hypothesis that one of the stages of information processing might be a filter that admits some messages but blocks others. Early selection The hypothesis that attention prevents early perceptual processing of distractors.
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However, a debate arose when other experiments, such as the Stroop task , Stroop task A list of colour names each of which is printed in a colour other than its name. revealed the possibility of both irrelevant information being processed extensively ( late selection ) Late selection The hypothesis that both relevant and irrelevant stimuli are perceived, so that the person must actively ignore the irrelevant stimuli in order to focus on the relevant ones. and even sometimes being perceived, and individuals actively ignoring irrelevant stimuli in order to process relevant ones. The Stroop task also brought up the debated regarding controlled (voluntary) versus automatic (involuntary) processes . Controlled versus Processes to which we must pay attention in order to automatic execute them properly versus processes that run themselves processes without the necessity of our paying attention to them. Sometimes, contrary to one’s intentions, peoples’ attention is grabbed by powerful or important stimuli ( attention capture ); Attention capture The power of some stimuli on some occasions to grab our attention in spite of the fact that we did not intend to pay attention to them. in other cases, individuals fail to attend to noticeable stimuli (
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Chapter 4 in details - Chapter 4: The Varieties of...

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