This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Space – The Final Frontier Space Early astronomers Early Astronomer - Astronomers use the principles of physics and mathematics Astronomer Astronomers
to learn about the fundamental nature of the universe, including the sun, moon, planets, stars, ... ... Nicholas Copernicus – (1473 – 1543) the first astronomer to teach that the sun Nicholas (not the Earth) was the center of the solar system. Galileo Galilei – built the first telescope in 1609 and proved Copernicus correct. What is out there? What Ever since mankind has looked up at the Ever moon and stars, we have wandered about life in the universe. life How big is the universe? How Billions of stars – planets – galaxies Billions What is the difference between a solar system, galaxy, and the universe? system, Solar System – our solar system includes Solar our sun, moon, asteroid belt, and 9 planets our Our solar system is part of the Milky way Our Galaxy. Galaxy. The universe is made up of many galaxies. The Universe The We can observe only a portion of the entire We universe. Because the universe is only about 14 billion years old, light has only had about 14 billion years to travel through it. Therefore, the most distant regions of the universe we can see are about 14 billion light-years away. This is the extent of the "observable universe," but the entire universe is probably much larger. It could even extend infinitely in all directions. extend The name of our galaxy is: The The name of our galaxy is the Milky Way. The Our Sun and all of the stars that you see at night belong to the Milky Way. When you go outside on a dark night and look up, you will see a milky, misty-looking band stretching across the sky. When you look at this band, you are looking into the densest parts of the Milky Way, the "disk" and the "bulge." The Milky way Galaxy The A galaxy is an enormous collection of gas, galaxy dust and billions of stars held together by gravity. One galaxy can have hundreds of billions of stars and be as large as 200,000 light years across. Our solar system is located in the outer reaches of the Milky Way Galaxy, which is a spiral galaxy. The Milky Way Galaxy contains roughly 200 billion stars. Most of these stars are not visible from Earth. Almost everything that we can see in the sky belongs to the Milky Way Galaxy. Earth in the Milky Way Earth Solar System Solar The solar system consists of the Sun; the eight The Sun the official planets, at least three "dwarf planets", more than 130 satellites of the planets, a large number of small bodies (the comets and asteroids), and small the interplanetary medium. (There are probably also many more planetary satellites that have not yet been discovered.) The inner solar system contains the Sun, Mercury, The inner Sun Mercury Venus, Earth and Mars: Venus Earth Mars The outer system contains Jupiter, Saturn, The outer Uranus, and Neptune Uranus, Facts About Earth Facts Distance from the sun - 93 million miles Distance from the moon - 240,000 miles Circumference - 25,000 miles Chuck Yeager Chuck Chuck Yeager of WV Chuck Chuck Yeager was born and raised in WV. In 1947, Chuck Yeager drove the first plane In to break the sound barrier. to US was ahead of the world in the space US race. race. But then……… Space Race Begins Space History changed on October 4, 1957, when the History Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race. Sputnik 1 Vanguard Vanguard The US thought they would be the first to The successfully launch a satellite into space. They put together a scientific team and began working on Vanguard. began Vanguard US vs Russia US
The Sputnik launch changed everything. As a The technical achievement, Sputnik caught the world's attention and the American public off-guard. Its size was more impressive than Vanguard's intended 3.5-pound payload. In addition, the public feared that the Soviets' ability to launch satellites also translated into the capability to launch ballistic missiles that could carry nuclear weapons from Europe to the U.S. Then the Soviets struck again; on November 3, Sputnik II was launched, carrying a much heavier payload, including a dog named Laika. Explorer 1 Explorer Explorer project – 4 months after Sputnik Explorer US sent Explorer 1 into space. US Mariner Project Mariner The Mariner Project was a series of US The space probes build to provide information on the inner planets – Mercury, Venus, and Mars. Mariner 2 launched in 1962. Many embarrassing disasters on the launch Many pad at Cape Canaveral. Mariner I failed on launch pad. Voyager Voyager The Mariner Project was renamed Voyager. Voyager. Voyager 1 launched from Kennedy Space Voyager Center September 1977. In 1980 it approached Saturn. approached Voyager 2 launched from Cape Canaveral in Voyager 1977 also. 1977 Voyager images Space Probes (Satellites) Mariner Viking 1 and 2 (summer 1976) 1st successful landing on mars. Designed to explore inner planets planets Voyager 1 and 2 designed to explore outer planets Galileo – 1989 – The 1st probe to orbit Jupiter and sent a smaller probe into it’s atmosphere. Launched from a space shuttle. Launched NASA NASA The National Aeronautics and Space The Administration (NASA) iis an agency of the s Administration United States federal government, United federal responsible for the nation's public space program. Established on July 29, space Established July 1958, by the 1958 by National Aeronautics and Space Act. National Space Centers Space Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Johnson Mostly a manned spacecraft center. Established in 1965. Established Kennedy Space Center – Cape Canaveral Kennedy Florida. Mostly a satellite and shuttle center. Florida. Other places include Mississippi. Manned Space Program Manned
Mercury Program Mercury Program Mercury The Mercury Program (1960 – 1962) 1st program to put an astronaut into space. Mercury-Redstone 3FREEDOM 7 May 5, 1961 Alan B. Shepard, Jr. 15 minutes, 28 seconds Suborbital flight that successfully put the first American in space. Gemini Program Gemini Was a manned space program to put 2 men Was into space – hence the name Gemini which means twin. means
•To subject man and equipment to space flight up to two weeks in duration. •To rendezvous and dock with orbiting vehicles and to maneuver the docked combination by using the target vehicle's propulsion system; •To perfect methods of entering the atmosphere and landing at a preselected point on land. Its goals were also met, with the exception of a land landing, which was cancelled in 1964. Gemini Launch The Apollo Program The Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight human missions undertaken by NASA, on behalf of the NASA on United States of America. The program used the United The Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, and Apollo Saturn and was conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. It was devoted to the goal (in U.S. President U.S. John F. Kennedy''s famous words) of "landing a s John man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Moon Earth" within the decade of the 1960s. This goal was achieved with the Apollo 11 mission in July Apollo 1969. 1969. The US Space Shuttle The The US space shuttle was designed to be The launched into space by rockets and then to return to the Earth’s surface by gliding down and landing on a runway. It was first used in the 1980’s. It is the first reusable spacecraft. It Shuttle Missions Shuttle Columbia, Challenger, Discovery and Challenger Discovery Atlantis. Challenger was destroyed on Atlantis Challenger destroyed launch in 1986, and Endeavour was built as Endeavour a replacement. Columbia was destroyed on Columbia destroyed re-entry in 2003. Challenger Crew The International Space Station The A joint effort between 5 space agencies. The agencies include the US, Russia, The Japan, Canada, and Europe. Japan, It orbits in low earth orbit. The station has continuous people staying The since it was first occupied in 2000. since ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 02/16/2011 for the course AST 1002 taught by Professor Dr.haywoodsmith,jr during the Spring '07 term at University of Florida.
- Spring '07